TPACK (Basis of TPACK (TPACK builds on core ideas of Shulman's PCK:…
Basis of TPACK
TPACK builds on core ideas of Shulman's PCK: inclusion of tech as another domain. Conceptual framework that emerges form 3 domains, interaction among them are inseparable.
Lee Shulman (1986): PCK: pedagogy and contentare indistinguishable body of understanding. Understanding of what makes learning of specific topics easy or difficult. How to transact the given piece of info (Padm, p.3)
The integrative viewpoint emphasizes combination of 3 domains emerges during teaching & learning. (Chai, Koh, Tsai, 2003 --- Padm, 2016, p. 3)
"Teachers with their understanding of the interaction between the basic components of knowledge of content in the subject area and the knowledge of pedagogy, use appropriate technologies to deliver the content." Padm, p.4
TPACK provides a framework for teachers to organize their knowledge of T, P and C for effective use of available technologies in a given teaching-learning context.
How did in-service T learn to integrate technology?
Successful/robust interventions: different combinations of strategies: training workshops, independent study, in class support, school clusters, f2f workshops (p.4) Orr, Westbrook... 2013
Tweed 2013: factor in T reluctance: provide PD for high and low self-efficacy T separately and parallel.
Modeling, goal setting, building efficacy, reflecting on assessments (p. 137, Allen 2016 dissertation)
Need to research quality of PD, PD hours did not translate into actual tech integration (Tweed 2013, p. 86)
Self-efficacy of Ts positively related to class tech use (Tweed, 2013, p. 78). PD hours had no impact (p. 79,80)
H2: align content with pedagogy and tech tools is the essence of TPACK, so let's use literature from this field to address this section of the TETCs.
Are we as TEs doing this alignment? Are we providing TCs the opportunity to try this?
What do we already know about TPACK for pre and in-service T?
Tech in educational context would be effective only if content, pedagogy and technology are designed carefully. It implies that for teachers to use technology in their teaching, they nee to be competent in all three domains. (abstract, Padmavathi, 2016)
review of these five pieces
Allen (2016 Dissertation): Integration of technology teaching literacy study of teacher learning
Chai, C. S., Koh, J. H. L., & Tsai, C. C. (2010). Facilitating preservice teachers' development of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK). Educational Technology & Society, 13(4), 63-73.
Orr, D., Westbrook, J., Pryor, J., Durrani, N., Sebba, J., & Adu-Yeboah, C. (2013). What are the impacts and cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve performance of untrained and under-trained teachers in the classroom in developing countries?.
Padmavathi, M. (2017). Preparing Teachers for Technology Based Teaching-Learning Using TPACK. Journal on School Educational Technology, 12(3), 1-9.
Tweed, S. R. (2013). Technology implementation: Teacher age, experience, self-efficacy, and professional development as related to classroom technology integration.
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What needs to be done
TC needs to be given sufficient opportunities during their training to develop adequate pedag reasoning and become confident & competent in infusing technology in their teaching (Angelli, 2005 - Padm, p.7)
TC need rich learning experiences across the curriculum, offer opportunities to reflect on these experiences (Mullen 2001 - Padm, p. 7)
TE need to be explicitly teach how the unique features of a tool can be used to transform a specific content domain for specific learners and teachers to be taught about the interactions among technology, content, P, and learners (Angeli & Val, 2009 - Padm, p.6)
Advice to new teachers: the ability to deal with being overwhelmed, keep up with the rate of change (Allen, 2016, p. 146)
Having TK does not mean having TPACK
Extensive teaching experience different from in service teachers with less T experience and good computer skill (Valanides & Angell, 2008 - Padmavathi, 2016 p,2)
The TPACK capabilities of T are different from their subject knowledge, knowledge of tech, and PK. It addresses the T's capabilities in maneuvering pedagogy and suitable use of technology on the subject taught. (Padm, p.5)
PK most influential factor in TPACK: Chai p. 69: TPC all significant predictors of preservice TPACK. Each had diff impact on TPACK. PK most influential
Course Design Activities
TPACK project: Chai 2010, p. 66
p. 68: ICT course helped develop TK and TPACK significantly, also CK - even though not intended. (Chai, 2010). Discussion p.69,70 for better wording
Design of ICT course: give priority to developing strong pedagogical foundation before instruction in tech tools. The prereq of TPACK is acquisition of solid PK.
Course should cater for continual engagement in design activities which facilitate TCs to make connections bw their CK PK and TK (p.70)
Model for developing TCs TPACK through ICT course