SBE Lect 5_ Part 4: ch7 Global entrepreneurship Monitor (Portrait Value…
SBE Lect 5_ Part 4: ch7 Global entrepreneurship Monitor
See slide 13-15/26
Data : European Social Survey
First seven are available for longitudinal analysis
The data are longitudinal without having a panel structure
In every survey round, a different cross-section of the population is interviewed
Since 2002, face-to-face interviews have been conducted every two years in most European countries, as well as in the Russian Federation, Turkey and Israel
The indirect relation through self-enhancement vs. self-transcendence is negative (Hypothesis 2)
The indirect relation through Openess to change vs. Conservation is negative (Hypothesis 1)
“The typical entrepreneur is more self-centred than other types, because he relies less than they do on tradition and connection and because his characteristic task... consists precisely in breaking up old, and creating new, tradition” (Schumpeter, 1934, p. 91)
◦ Favouring Openness to Change
“By providing a sacred basis for prevailing norms and social structure, established religions encourage believers to accept the social order and discourage questioning and innovation.” (Schwartz and Huismans, 1995, p. 92)
◦ Favouring Conservation
Portrait Value Questionnaire
“How much like you is this person?” on a six-point scale, ranging from “Not like me at all” to “Very much like me”
Conservation (some example items)
It is important to him always to behave properly. He wants to avoid doing anything people would say is wrong.
He believes that people should do what they're told. He thinks people should follow rules at all times, even when no-one is watching.
He thinks it's important not to ask for more than what you have. He believes that people should be satisfied with what they have.
Openness to change (some example items)
He looks for adventures and likes to take risks. He wants to have an exciting life.
It is important to him to make his own decisions about what he does. He likes to be free to plan and to choose his activities for himself.
Thinking up new ideas and being creative is important to him. He likes to do things in his own original way.
The theory of basic human values (Schwartz)
Let’s focus on Openness to change vs. Conservation
◦ In choice situations, you face a trade-off between “independence and readiness for change” and “preservation of the past and resistance to change”
Two bipolar value dimensions that are motivationally distinct and recognized throughout all cultures
◦ Assess your priorities with Excel sheet on Canvas
See slide 11/26
Individuals with different “identities” might make different choices when confronted with apparently similar situations of choice because of value differences and normative commitments
If you see yourself as a religious person (εj), does this influence the choice for self-employment (aj) through values (prescriptions P) belonging to the social category of religious persons (cj)?