SBE Lect 5_ Part 4: ch7 Global entrepreneurship Monitor (The theory of…
SBE Lect 5_ Part 4: ch7 Global entrepreneurship Monitor
See slide 11/26
If you see yourself as a religious person (εj), does this influence the choice for self-employment (aj) through values (prescriptions P) belonging to the social category of religious persons (cj)?
Individuals with different “identities” might make different choices when confronted with apparently similar situations of choice because of value differences and normative commitments
The theory of basic human values (Schwartz)
Two bipolar value dimensions that are motivationally distinct and recognized throughout all cultures
◦ Assess your priorities with Excel sheet on Canvas
Let’s focus on Openness to change vs. Conservation
◦ In choice situations, you face a trade-off between “independence and readiness for change” and “preservation of the past and resistance to change”
Portrait Value Questionnaire
Openness to change (some example items)
Thinking up new ideas and being creative is important to him. He likes to do things in his own original way.
It is important to him to make his own decisions about what he does. He likes to be free to plan and to choose his activities for himself.
He looks for adventures and likes to take risks. He wants to have an exciting life.
Conservation (some example items)
He thinks it's important not to ask for more than what you have. He believes that people should be satisfied with what they have.
He believes that people should do what they're told. He thinks people should follow rules at all times, even when no-one is watching.
It is important to him always to behave properly. He wants to avoid doing anything people would say is wrong.
“How much like you is this person?” on a six-point scale, ranging from “Not like me at all” to “Very much like me”
“By providing a sacred basis for prevailing norms and social structure, established religions encourage believers to accept the social order and discourage questioning and innovation.” (Schwartz and Huismans, 1995, p. 92)
◦ Favouring Conservation
“The typical entrepreneur is more self-centred than other types, because he relies less than they do on tradition and connection and because his characteristic task... consists precisely in breaking up old, and creating new, tradition” (Schumpeter, 1934, p. 91)
◦ Favouring Openness to Change
See slide 13-15/26
The indirect relation through Openess to change vs. Conservation is negative (Hypothesis 1)
The indirect relation through self-enhancement vs. self-transcendence is negative (Hypothesis 2)
Data : European Social Survey
Since 2002, face-to-face interviews have been conducted every two years in most European countries, as well as in the Russian Federation, Turkey and Israel
First seven are available for longitudinal analysis
In every survey round, a different cross-section of the population is interviewed
The data are longitudinal without having a panel structure