COMMUNICATION ON ORGANIZATION (communication tools (information = overload…
COMMUNICATION ON ORGANIZATION
Barriers to Effective Communication
= communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics. Receivers also project their interests and expectations into communications as they decode them.
Individuals have a finite capacity for processing data. When the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity, the result is information overload.
refers to a sender’s purposely manipulating information so the receiver will see it more favorably. A manager who tells his boss what he feels the boss wants to hear is filtering information.
= In such instances, we are most prone to disregard our rational and objective thinking processes and substitute emotional judgments.
= overload A condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity.
Blog (Web log)
= A Web site where entries are written, and generally displayed in reverse chronological order, about news, events, and personal diary entries.
= A free blogging and networking service where users send and read messages known as tweets many of which concern OB issues.
permits employees in an organization to have real-time meetings with people at different locations. Live audio and video images let participants see, hear, and talk with each other without being physically in the same location.
Instant Messaging and Text Messaging
Like e-mail, instant messaging (IM) and text messaging (TM) use electronic media.
= The Transfer and understanding of meaning.
= The steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transfer and understanding of meaning.
The key parts of this model are (1) the sender, (2) encoding, (3) the message, (4) the channel, (5) decoding, (6) the receiver, (7) noise, and (8) feedback.
= An organization’s informal communication network.
= Communication channels established by an organization to transmit messages related to the professional activities of members.
Communication channels that are created spontaneously and that emerge as responses to individual choices.
When communication takes place among members of the same work group, members of work groups at the same level, managers at the same level, or any other horizontally equivalent workers, we describe it as
= used to provide feedback to higher-ups, inform them of progress toward goals, and relay current problems. keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, co-workers, and the organization in general.
= The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode.
= A relatively superficial consideration of evidence and information making use of heuristics.
A detailed consideration of evidence and information relying on facts, figures, and logic.
Cultural Guide and Rules in Communication
Assume differences until similarity is proven.
Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation.
Before sending a message, put yourself in the recipient’s shoes. What are his or her values, experiences, and frames of reference?
Treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis.
Cultures that rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues in communication.
Cultures that rely heavily on words to convey meaning in communication.
Barriers caused by semantics.
Words mean different things to different people, particularly people from different national cultures. Some words don’t translate between cultures.
Barriers caused by word connotations
. Words imply different things in different languages.
Barriers caused by tone differences.
In some cultures, language is formal; in others, it’s informal. In some cultures, the tone changes depending on the context: People speak differently at home, in social situations, and at work.
Differences in tolerance for conflict and methods for resolving conflicts.
Individuals from individualist cultures tend to be more comfortable with direct conflicts and will make the source of their disagreements overt.
Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both.
Reducing the Negative Consequences of Rumors
in the long run, the best defense against rumors is a good offense (in other words, rumors tend to thrive in the absence of formal communication).
actions and decisions that may appear inconsistent, unfair, or secretive.
from shooting the messenger—rumors are a natural fact of organizational life, so respond to them calmly, rationally, and respectfully.
Maintain open communication
channels constantly encourage employees to come to you with concerns, suggestions, and ideas.