Chapter 2 (Constraints (Constraints-based approaches ( No one movement…
Constraints are boundaries that shape a learner's self-organising movement patterns, cognitions and decision-making processes.
Constraints influence the way performers or learners process information, make decisions and ultimately move
Factors that influence learning and performance at any time are considered 'constraints'.
Within a constraints-led approach, learners often move one step backwards for every two steps forward
The constraints- based approach to coaching employs an ecological or 'dynamical systems' approach, which takes into account the interaction between three categories of constraints: the individual, the environment and the task.
The way these constraints are modified affects the execution of the goal-related task and, ultimately, the learning of the skill
Examples of constraints: individual constraints (body size, fitness level, technical skills), environmental constraints (local area, noise level, weather conditions, terrain, safety), task constraints (rules, equipment available, number of players)
No one movement solution fits all problems: Each player needs to be able to solve problems in ways suited to their particular strengths and weaknesses
A more natural way to learn most movement skills: at a more subconscious level (implicit learning)
Coaches can deliberately manipulate surroundings: to create the conditions that foster changes in players' behaviour and self-organisations under various contraints
Integration of sports science: other aspects of sports science are intergrated at the same time as skill acquisition, e.g. strength and conditioning, mental skill or biomechanics
Create a high level of variability during practice: allowing each individual to achieve a task goal in his/her own way. Movement variability is considered intrinsic to being to constantly adapt to changing demands
Task constraints are the most important: for a coach, parent or physical education teacher to manipulate, as there is so much potential to vary the constraints, such as the task goals, specific rules, equipment, size of playing area
Representative task design
A critical feature of task constraints is the performance context that learners use to coordinate their actions.
Learners rely on their senses (sight, sound, tough) to process information in relation to their movements and decision making
Affordances are opportunities for action, in terms of the capabilities of the individual. Before a decision can be made, a player often has to determine whether or not the behaviour is possible.
The key aspect of affordances is that coaches create learning/practice environments that allow players to process information, enabling them to make informed decisions based on an understanding of the capabilities of:
Requirements for coaches:
A solid knowledge of specific sports
Experience with developing a range of games and manipulating the constraints
An understanding of the unique individual constraints, strengths and weaknesses
In this problem-based learning approach, coaches/ teachers shape, guide and facilitate, rather than direct. They can use an array of questions o prompt and guide the learner to the desired outcomes.
Coaches can manipulate the individual, environment and task constraints using guided discovery and self-exploration. This allows learners to take more responsibility for their own development
Can be performed live and/or recorded digitally
Several factors can influence your ability to observe, including:
Accumulation to experience
Knowledge of the game and the skills required
A range of variables could be observed before or during the game, such as:
Global dynamics of a team
Whether the team is completing set plays according to the game plan
Opponents' patterns of play
Behaviour of the opposing coach
Several factors influence our capacity to observe and analyse players during a game, including:
The main limitation of observing the quality of a performance is subjectivity. For example, two different coaches. selectors or sectors could watch the same performance and have two very different perceptions about the quality of the performance
Qualitative Movement Analysis Principles
Qualitative movement can be analysed for many purposes, including:
Diagnosis of strengths and weaknesses of players or teams
To obtain a final result or rank in competion
For talent identification or team selection
To predict future performance results
Qualitative movement diagnosis, the most widely used of the above terms, is the assessment of human movement technique, with the aim of providing appropriate intervention too improve performance
Qualitative movement analysis is used by a variety of professionals, including: Teachers, coaches, instructors, trainers, physical therapists
Analysis is used to improve human movement. The four main principles of qualitative movement analysis: are observation, evaluation and error correction
A coach/teacher would weigh up whether the player makes this error frequently, and the size and direction of the errors, to determine what intervention or error correction strategy should be used. A coach needs cross-disciplinary knowledge to determine what factors are causing the problem
Test need to be valid and reliable
Ideally, when we qualitatively analyse skills, we use a valid and reliable method and measure.
Validity refers to the test's capacity to measure what it is intended to.
E.g. having a speedminton player perform a serve as many times as possible in 30 seconds is not valid test of ability to serve in speedminton, because the rules of the age state that you can serve when you are ready
Refers to the ability of a test to reproduce similar results when conducted in identical/similar conditions, contexts and situations
To maximise the reliability of an assessment you need to use the same or similar:
Inter-rater agreement is the degree of agreement among judges. It measures homogeneity, or consensus, in the ratings given by judges, evaluators or scorers.
Assuming all observers have been trained to use a similar set of standards or judging criteria, we can compare scores across different observers
Inter-rater reliability by getting observers to rate a particular performance, with all observers using the same performance and scoring system
Refers to the consistency of ratings given by one assessor. Assuming an individual observer has been trained to use a valid set of criteria to analyse a performance, their scoring over time can be assessed for consistency by getting them to score an identical filmed performance at different times.
Generally refers to a judgement of quality, and a determination of the value or amount of something.
The analyst must first decide what the problem is; second, what is causing it; and third, how it can be addressed.
Performance can be assessed either objectively (based on measures such as score and time) or subjectively, generally by employing qualitative approaches (based on perception and interpretation of observation or opinion)
Most sports generally attempt to make the scoring/judging more objective via the development of criteria/rubrics that can be used to award scores
Measurements can be made more objective by using electronic measurements devices/ systems e.g. electronic timing gates, timing
Sociocultural Influences on Skill Development and Characteristics of the Stages of Learning
Perceived competence is based on self-evaluation of one's effectiveness or capability in a specific context. Consistency of perceived competence of motor skills is associated with actual skill competence, and often with participation in physical activity.
Social factors: - Family structure
Role and status in society
Access to equipment
Access to coaches
Active role models
An understanding of sociocultural factors is crucial in developing instructional teaching and coaching strategies.
Sociocultural factors influence skill development at all stages of learning, however the same factor can influence a learner in the cognitive stage very differently to someone in the autonomous stage
Are customs, lifestyles and values that characteristics a society or group
These factors are the key force within cultures and societies that affect our thoughts, feelings and behaviours.
Error correction (intervention)
Weaknesses are identified and strategies to address these are then developed using either direct or constraints-based coaching or instructional approaches
The strategies developed are based on the stage of learning the performer is in. Intervention is then undertaken via one or both of the following
Intervention during a micro-cycle of training, via:
Adaption of training exercises in practice
Visual strategies (digital footage, digital clips of elite performance)
Meetings (with individuals or the team)
Written reports to provide feedback based on video footage
Intervention during the game by:
discussing at half-time
targeting individual players
providing immediate feedback
using gestures and other body language
calling time out
Traditional direct coaching approaches are rigid and provide feedback on every practice attempt. This limits the need for the learner to go searching for their own movement solutions
There is a time and a place for the use of direct coaching approaches, regardless of the level at which a performer or team is working
Within the direct coaching approach, the learner/ performer has limited need or opportunity to make decisions, to adapt to large variability or to think independently
Direct coaching approaches require the coach to make all the decisions relating to:
Structure of how tasks are to be performed
Timing of when tasks will be performed
Duration of time spent on practice tasks
How tasks will be modified and progressed to make them easier or harder as required
How technique and strategies will be refined and implemented
Coaches need to develop an observation strategy, which must be based on a solid knowledge of the game and the characteristics of skilled performance relating to the skills of the sport.
Need to determine the specific purpose of the analysis
Educators/instructors should utilise media technology as a valuable aid for observation and analysis, especially during game-like situations
There are numerous types of software, apps and technologies that can assist with capture and analysis of a range of movements
Characteristics of skilled performance include:
Performs consistently at a very high level
Efficient in time and energy
Strong kinaesthetic sense
Sound mental approach
Skill Improvement at the three stages of learning
Learners in the autonomous stage need the following:
Practice using game-like situations to focus on tactics, shot selection
Psychological skills training to help the player cope under pressure
Practice opportunities with a high level of variability
Practice which challenge the athlete to use higher-order thinking via a range of problems-based learning scenarios
Learners in the associative stage need the following:
Regular feedback to refine skills and reduce chance of poor habits developing
Opportunities to practice with increased variability
Learners at the cognitive stage need the following:
No more than two simple instructions at a time to focus on
plenty of demonstrations (live and digital) to give the learner a mental picture of the task
Complex skills to be broken down into smaller parts
A focus on simple fundamental movements skills
Strategies to keep motivation high
Positive and constructive feedback
Link Between Motor Skill Development, Participation and Performance
Young people with better developed motor skills may find it easier to be active and engage in more physical activity than those with less developed motor skills
Fundamental movement skills lay the foundations for the development and refinement of more complex sport-specific skills. These determine the level of performance a person can achieve when playing sport
Not only is the development of motor skills positively associated with participation in physical activity and performance, but FMS competency also has implications for individual health, positively affecting physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness
Motor skills generally do not develop naturally. The period when it is critical to develop motor skills is childhood.
In general, boys are more proficient in performing object control skills, such as catching and throwing, are more active and fitter, and have a higher perceived competence than girls.
Ideally, children should have mastered all basic motor skills by Year 4
Physical education programs in primary and secondary schools have the potential to help students develop their motor skills, barriers, such as funding and staff availability, may limit the effectiveness of these programs
Basic motor skills are classified as:
Object control skills (e.g. catching and throwing)
Locomotor skills (e.g. running and jumping)
Stability skills (e.g. balancing and twisting)