Unit 2.2: Challenges to Elizabeth at home and abroad (2.2.1: plots and…
Unit 2.2: Challenges to Elizabeth at home and abroad
2.2.2: relations with Spain
188.8.131.52: Political and religious rivalry
England was not as powerful as Spain at this time, but wanted to be so they started helping Dutch rebels fight the Spanish and steal Spanish silver
Philip II of Spain was a devout catholic and Elizabeth was a protestant. Elizabeth's religious settlement lead to the Pope excommunicating Elizabeth, so Philip II could attack. on top of this, after the Revolt of the Northern Earls and the RIdolfi plot, catholics were persecuted more and more.
In the 1570s England became a lot more involved in the Netherlands. Elizabeth helped the Dutch rebels by sending money and a mercenary army, as well as threatening to marry the Duke of Alençon, the heir to the French throne. This scared Philip II because this would unite two of their enemies
Spain controlled lots of lucrative trade such as Antwerp and the "New World". England was refused access to any of this trade, making them angry. England ended up using privateers to illegally trade in these areas and even steal Spanish silver.
184.108.40.206: Commercial rivalry. The New World, privateering and the significance of the activities of Drake
Spain controlled all of the trade in the "New World" and banned England from participating in it. In response to this, Elizabeth hired privateers like Francis Drake to sail to South America to do illegal trade and steal silver. Of course, Elizabeth denied any involvement in this
2.2.3: outbreak of war with Spain 1585-88
220.127.116.11: English direct involvement in the Netherlands, 1585-88. The role of Robert Dudley
Elizabeth helped the Dutch rebels by sending money and a mercenary army. This was because the Spanish had sacked the trading city of Antwerp, where many English merchants sold their wool. This hit England's economy hard as many farmers had enclosed their land to raise sheep for this exact purpose.
The leader of the rebels, William of Orange, was assassinated in July 1584, a month after the Duke of Alencon, who was a major threat to the Spanish
Spain signs a deal with France against the Dutch rebels, England signs a deal with the rebels against Spain. Spain and England are basically at war.
Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester, has good relations with the Dutch rebels and is names Governor General of the Netherlands, directly provoking Spain and therefore angering Elizabeth
Robert Dudley is mostly ineffective, loses the trust of the Dutch rebels and is replaced
18.104.22.168: Drake and the raid on Cadiz: ‘Singeing the King of Spain’s beard’.
2.2.4: The Armada
2.2.1: plots and revolts at home
22.214.171.124: Ridolfi, Babington and Throckmorton plots and Walsingham's use of spies
Sir Francis Walsingham and his use of spies
Walsingham was Elizabeth's spymaster and put spies in any place that was suspicious. They could be messengers to intercept messages, they could be servants to monitor someone's movements. These spies were very effective as they discovered the Ridolfi, Babington and Throckmorton plots
Anthony Babington, a young English catholic who once worked with Mary Queen of Scots hatched a plan to put Mary on the throne. He was recruited by an extremist catholic priest called John Ballard to plan the rebellion. The plan was once again to have a French army invade and put Mary on the throne.
Ballard was already under inspection by Sir Francis Walsingham's spies so the plot was discovered very quickly. Walsingham's spies in Mary's household encouraged her to reply, and when she did the letters were intercepted. These letters were used as incriminating evidence and Mary Queen of Scots was put on trial executed in 1587. Babington suffered the same fate.
Francis Throckmorton, a young English catholic, carried messages between the French, Spanish and English nobles. The plan was for a French invasion to be financed by Spain and happen at the same time as a rebellion from the nobles. Mary Queen of Scots would be put on the throne.
The plot was discovered by Sir Francis Walsingham's spies before it could be put into action.
an Italian banker named Roberto Ridolfi (who worked for the Pope, who was Catholic and therefore against Elizabeth, who was Protestant). He had the Pope's support, as well as the support of the Duke of Norfolk, Mary Queen of Scots and Philip II of Spain (who promised 10,000 soldiers).
The plot was discovered by Sir Francis Walsingham's spies before it could be put into action. The Duke of Norfolk was tried and executed.
126.96.36.199: Reasons for and significance of the execution of Mary Queen of Scots
She was directly involved in the Babington plot
Disliked by Parliament
She was a threat to the religious settlement
She was a long-term threat to Elizabeth
188.8.131.52: Revolt of the Northern Earls
The basic plan of this plot was to rescue Mary Queen of Scots and marry her to the Duke of Norfolk, and was supported by the Duke of Westmorland and the Earl of Northumberland
This plot failed and the Duke of Norfolk was arrested. The Duke of Westmorland and the Earl of Northumberland were angered by this and started a rebellion. 700 rebels are executed, the Earl of Northumberland tries to escape to Scotland but is captured and beheaded. The Duke of Westmorland escapes and lives off money from the King of Spain. the Duke of Norfolk is eventually released
The conspirators were motivated by religion (they were Catholic or didn't agree with the treatment of Catholics), wanted to reclaim the influence they had lost under Elizabeth, provide (or become) Elizabeth's successor or provide Mary Queen of Scots with a throne