Body Plan and Organization (Survey of Body Systems (Integumentary System:…
Body Plan and Organization
Structural Organization of the Human Body
: When atoms combine together they form molecules. Examples include Water (H2O), Oxygen (O2), and Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
: Specialized subunits within the Cell made up of multiple Macromolecules. Each with their own unique role and properties. Examples include Ribosomes, and The Plasma Membrane.
: The basic building blocks of life. Examples include Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), and Oxygen (O).
: The basic structural, functional, and biological unit of living organisms. Examples include Squamous Cells, Cuboidal Cells, and Columnar Cells.
: When molecules begin interacting with each other and combining together they form Macromolecules. Examples include Phospholipids, Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Nucleic Acids.
: Multiple Cells combine together to form Tissues. Examples include Simple Squamous Epithelium.
: Specific groupings of tissues form organs. Examples include the Heart, Lungs, Liver, and Intestines.
: A group of organs working together to perform specific functions. Examples include the Cardiovascular System, the Respiratory System, and the Digestive System.
: All the disparate organ systems together form and organism. Humans being a prime example.
To be in proper anatomical position, you need to be facing forward with the palms of both hands facing forward as well.
Body Planes and Sections
: In order to properly describe the locations, structures, and movement of the human body we have different anatomical planes in which a body might be viewed
: Plane which splits into right and left portions, not necessarily equal.
: Plane which splits through the middle with equal right and left portions.
: Plane which separates the front and back of the body. Anterior and Posterior or Front and Back are used. Ventral and Dorsal are also used.
: Plane which separates the Superior (upper) from the Inferior (lower). Not necessarily equal.
There are ten specific terms used to describe anatomical terms in relation to each other.
: Below. Your chin is inferior to your nose.
Closer to the middle. Your heart is medial to your lungs.
: Above. Your eyes are superior to your nose.
: To the side. Your lungs are lateral to your heart.
: In back of. Your teeth are to the posterior of your lips.
: Closer to the attachment location. Your thigh is proximal to your hip.
In front of. Your lips are anterior to your teeth.
: More distant to the attachment location. Your feet are distal to your feet.
: Close to or on the body surface. Your skin is superficial to your muscles.
: Going below the surface. Your bones are deep to your skin.
Basic Anatomical Terminology
, is the study of the structure and locations of the body. The What.
, is the study of the functions of the body. The How.
Major anatomical regions of the body
: The head and trunk.
: Everything that is not in the Axial Region.
Survey of Body Systems
: Encloses the internal body systems. Site of many sensory receptors. Hair, Skin, and Nails are primary components.
: Supports the body and enables movement (with muscular system). Cartilage, Bones, and Joints are the major components,
: Enables movement (with skeletal system. Helps maintain body temperature. Skeletal muscles, and tendons are major components.
: Detects and processes sensory information. Activate bodily responses. Brain, Spinal Cord, and Peripheral Nerves are the major components.
: Secretes hormones, regulates bodily processes, Pancreas, Adrenal Glands, Pituitary Glands, Thyroid Gland, Testes (male), and Ovaries (female) are the primary components.
: Delivers oxygen and nutrients to tissues. Equalizes temperature in the body. Heart and blood vessels are the primary components.
: Returns fluid to blood, defends against pathogens. Thymus, Lymph Nodes, Spleen, Lymphatic Vessels are the primary components.
Removes carbon dioxide from the body, delivers oxygen to blood. Trachea, Lungs, and Nasal Passages are primary components.
Processes food for use by the body, removes waste from undigested food. Stomach, Liver, Gall Bladder, Large and Small Intestine are the primary components.
Controls water balance in the body, removes wastes from blood and excretes them. Kidney and Urinary Bladder are the primary component.
Male Reprodcutive System
Produces sex hormones and gametes, delivers gametes to female. Epididymis and Testes are the primary components.
Female Reproductive System
: Produces sex hormones and gametes, supports embryo/fetus until birth, produces milk for infant. Mammary Glands, Ovaries, and the Uterus are the primary components.