How Did England change after the ned of the Break with Rome? 1536-1547?…
How Did England change after the ned of the Break with Rome? 1536-1547?
PERSUASIONS AND FACTION IN COURT
CONSERVATIVE FACTION= Stephen Gardiner, Duke of Norfolk
what caused the conservative faction downfall? /Henry Howard's and Duke of Norfolk's downfall?
when henry VII was ill, henry Howard produced a new coat of arms with reference to Edward, the confessor- so allowed Howard's enemies to attack and lead to henry Howard's execution for treason in 1547, but duke of Norfolk not killed because henry then died.
CONSERVATIVES WANTED TO UNDERMINE CRANMER AND CATHEIRNE PARR 1543- BY LINKING THEM BOTH TO RADICAL REFORMER ANNE ASKEW WHO HENRY SAW HERETC
TRIED TO BRING CRANMER DOWN THROUGH THE PREBENDARIES PLOT 1543- which was a plot started with complaints by conservatives in Kent against what they believed were heretical views- but their attempt to bring cranmer failed
1539-ACT OF PRECENDENCE- formulises all the major roles in court- does give Cromwell more power but also legitimises the power of Gardiner and duke of Norfolk
the failure of the cleeves marriage opened up opportunities for conservative faction- Norfolk used his position in the privy council to present his niece Catherine Howard- who= conservative- Gardiner introduced her to henry. So henry married her in 1540- BUT a little over a year later she was accused of adultery- Cranmer passed these details to henry
1542- EXECUTION OF CATHERINE HOWARD
REFOREMIST/ HERTFORD FACTION= Cromwell, Cranmer, and Dudley
CRANMER WAS FAVOURED BY HENRY- 1543- HENRY GOT CRANMER TO INVESTIGATE THE PREBENDARIES PLOT- THAT WAS AGAISNT HIMSELF! AND HENRY EVEN GAVE CRANMER HIS OWN PERSONAL RING- SHOWS HE HAS THE KINGS SUPPORT
1543- HENRY MARRIES CATHERINE PARR - PROMOTED TO HENRY BY REFORMITS
downfall of Cromwell in 1540- conservatives criticised Cromwell for being associated with heretic group in Calais who denied transubstantiation. Duke of Norfolk had meetings internationally to try and orchestrate the downfall of Cromwell. 1540- Cromwell was executed by henry
John Guy refers to Cromwell's political downfall as "thrown to the wolves"- shows how reformist faction brought him down
SUCCESSION AND POLITCIAL LEADERSHIP
TALK ABOUT DRY STAMP
= protestant leadership
who would succeed to the throne and what would happen to governing?
Edward V would succeed as minor. henry chose not to have a single regent (person who governs the country until the monarch reaches 18 yrs old) because if 1 person in charge- would have separate power in court- too hard for Edward to handle when he reaches age. so henry made Edward Seymour (Edward's V uncle) leader of those who were left to act on Edward's behalf until he reached right age.
POWER VACUUMN= Henry dying- who will be in control of Edward?- factions are competing for the education of Edward
Gardiner gets written off the will in 1546 so end of conservative faction)- even the Hertford group (reformist) try to protect gardiner- henry= too extreme. Conservative faction had been leading court between 1538-45. BUT rise of the hertford group 1545- 47- Dudley= leader of the reformist.
RELATIONS WITH FRANCE AND SCOTLAND
in 1543/44 - henry allied with Charles V to invade Paris as henry wanted to gain territory in france and at least get france to pay their pension to England. BUT henry abandoned the plan to attack Paris and instead went to take Boulogne and Charles made peace with France. France attacked England and sunk the Mary Rose Ship.
In October 1542 - henrys army under leadership of duke Norfolk launched attack on Scotland - not planned- just to show authority- burned houses etc. So Scotland led big army to fight henry at Solway Moss - defeat of the scots by a smaller English army
HENRY hoped to encourage james V to break with rome and he also wanted to get terrirtoy in france- BUT couldnt due to AULD ALLIANCE between Scotland and france- so was forced to defeat the scots to prevent them attacking England whilst army in France
there is a war with France in 1543- Charles V abandons England to fight this- war cost between £2,000,000 and £3000,000
1538= TREATY OF NICE = 10 YEAR TRUCE BETWEEN CHARLES V AND FRANCAIS I. POPE PAUL EXCOMMICATED HENRY VIII 1538. 1538- POEP CALLED UPON CATHOLIC POWERS OF CHARLES V AND FRANCAIS I TO MOUNT CRUSADE VS ENGLAND TO RETURN IT TO ROME
By 1540- Stephen of Gardiner sent to imperial court to negotiate alliance with Charles- which was agreed in spring 1541-
So henry also sent duke of Norfolk to France and Wyatt was sent to imperial court- exploited divisions based on plots being developed by both sides against eachother- henry wanted to use these divisions to protect church
Cromwell saw this as huge threat so wanted allies- held negotiations with protestant german princes within the schmalkaldic league
lead to cormwell marrying Anne of cleeves from Germany in jan 1540
IN response this- henry's 6 articles 1539 - more catholic- henry feared invasion
DOCTRINE AND RELIGIOUS PRACTICES
DISSOLUTION OF THE MONASTRIES 1535- 1540-
1540- ALL MONASTIC HOUSES DISSOLVED
1539- ACT FOR THE DISSOLUTION OF THE GREATER MONASTRIES
1538- LARGER MONASTRIES BEGIN VOLUNATRY SURRENDER
1536- ACT FOR THE DISSOLUTION OF THE LESSER MONASTRIES
1535- CROMWELL APPOINTED VICE GERENT AND VALOUR ECCLESIASTICUS ORDERED= commissioners sent out to monasteries and surveys completed.
CHANTRIES - period between 1540- 1543- 18 chantries dissolved. 10 in 1544. The Act of Parliament 1545- allowed further 19 chantries to be taken by crown. chantry chaples attached to every church and many of monks from the dissolved houses had found employment as chantry priests.
WHY DID HENRY DISSOLVE THE CHANTRIES?
VERY WEALTHY OWNING GREAT DEAL OF PROPERTY. SIMILR ATTRACTIONS TO MONASTRIES. MONEY FROM THESE USED FOR THE FUND THE WARS VS FRANCE AND SCOTLAND
1545- Cranmer produced the book of homilies used in churches s that were sermons that were written by him.
THE KINGS BOOK 1543=argued that it was written by henry himself- revised edition of the bishops book. - 7 sacraments, ten commandments and lords prayer. it was openly conservative- confirmed masses for the dead and rejected Lutheran views of justification of faith alone
Act for the Advancement of true religion 10 may 1543- just after the kings book- abolished incorrect books and restricted the reading of the bible in English.
THE ROYAL INJUNCTIONS-
THE BISHOPS BOOK 1537 - by Cromwell= very Lutheran. Salvation by faith emphasised. whilst there was no mention of transubstantiation. henry= very disapproving of it- although he authorised it, he took it away 3 years later and even produced a very detailed critique of the bishops book
ACT OF 10 ARTICLES IN 1536- CROMWELL AND CRANMER- was more reformist but didnt complexly attack Catholicism.- Included sacraments of baptism, penance, the eucharist- other 4= lost. said only god could anser prayers saints cannot. all rituals removed. laity shouldn't pray to images- only god. term transubstantiation wasn't used.
ACT OF 6 ARTCILES IN 1539- confirmed catholic doctrine- henry favoured this- it confirmed transubstantiation. It said all of the 7 sacraments. defended communion, upheld private mass, forbade clergy to marry and vows of Chasity- henry did this in response to foreign policy- see that section