SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIME & DEVIANCE (Functionalist subcultural…
SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIME & DEVIANCE
Crime is inevitable. Not everyone is able to obey the norms and values of society all the time.
Crime is functional and has two functions of; boundary maintenance, adaptation and change. Anomie occurs when there is too much crime and society stagnates when the crime rate is too low. Therefore, an optimal rate of crime is necessary for social change.
Punishment is also functional as it acts as a deterrent to others
Two more functions of crime: Davis - safety valve and Cohen - warning device.
the strain theory. Merton believes that crime was/ is a result from strain in society.
Theory of anomie. developed on Durkheim's concept explaining that it was a feature of everyday life not an indication of social disorder.
The five possible responses to the material goals of society.
why don't more people commit crime?
why do people conform to the norms and values?
bonds of attachment prevents anomie.
if each of the bonds of attachment are strong then it leads to conformity however if the bonds grow to be weak can lead to criminal behaviour.
Marxist Subcultural Views
Critical of functionalist subcultures of crime
Stuart Hall and Tony Jefferson say youth subcultures are symbolic attempts to resist the power of bourgeois hegemony by adopting behaviour that appears threatening to the establishment.
Resistance through rituals
Functionalist subcultural theory
CLOWARD & OHLIN
illegitimate opportunity structure in their neighbourhood.
working class boys fail in school leading to form delinquent subcultures to overcome status frustration. They achieve membership of delinquent gangs.
delinquents are part of mainstream working class culture.
MATZA, interactionist view.
Deliquency and drift
deliquency is a phase and youth conform later on
crime is more casual than functionalist subcultural theorists make out. Functionalist views are too deterministic.
Techniques of neutralisation
Denial of responsibility
Denial of injury
Condemnation of the condemners
Appeal to higher loyalties
Denial of the victim