The effects of Hypertrophy on Muscular Strength (OFFICIAL) (2. LITERATURE…
The effects of Hypertrophy on Muscular Strength (OFFICIAL)
REST INTERVALS important
This study will find out whether there is a protocol that targets muscular strength and hypertrophy at the same time.
1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Therefore the researcher will study if there is a correlation between 2+ minutes rest interval times and strength-hypertrophy benefits in the general population. The results of this study could provide a new set of training protocols for people seeking to build muscle and strength at the same time. This would mean that the researcher is interested in the specific region for strength and hypertrophy.
The researcher will find out how many repetitions, how many sets, what is the recommended rest interval between sets and the frequency needed to create this new protocol and make recommendations for the purpose of strength and hypertrophy.
As explained above, protocols for strength training and hypertrophy already exist, but is there a protocol that targets both fitness components at the same time?
Although these exercises may be classified as bodyweight training or strength exercises (ACSM, Health-Related Physical Fitness Testing and Interpretation, Table 4.11 Fitness Categories for the Push-up by Age and Sex, p 102), they can play an important role on building muscle mass and strength.
The study wants to find out whether there is a correlation between 2+ minutes rest intervals and strength-hypertrophy benefits.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Margonato et al., (1994)
states that strength training produces an increase in muscular force and hypertrophy becomes appreciable later.
Ahtiainen et al., (2003)
states that testosterone plays an important role in muscular strength and hypertrophy
Jaric et al., (2003)
states that the normalization of strength and movement performance in relation to body size has been applied inconsistently and arbitrarily in the literature.
Jones et al., (1989)
describes the physiological changes in skeletal muscle from strength training.
Sabag et al., (2018
) states it is possible to benefit from both fitness components (ie., Hypertrophy and muscular strength)
De Souza et al., (2018)
investigated the effects of different training regimens on muscle strength and hypertrophy in recreationally active male college students.
Kentaro et al., (2015)
states that low and mixed load training regimens can be as effective as a high load regimen for increasing muscle hypertrophy in untrained men. This is an interesting point because hypertrophy can be achieved through different training styles.
Naoki et al., (2017)
states that bodyweight training (ie., pushups) can build muscle and strength
Schoenfel et al., (2018)
found that training volume plays an important role in muscular hypertrophy.
Kraemer et al., (2005)
states that protocols with sufficient intensity that work a large muscle mass produce the greatest acute hormonal elevations (e.g. testosterone, GH and the catabolic hormone cortisol) compared with low-volume, high-intensity protocols using long rest intervals.
Suchomel et al., (2018)
states that 2 to 5 minutes interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits.
The researcher will, therefore, use periodization training regimens with 2 minutes rest intervals for the control group and nonperiodized periodization with rest intervals below 2 minutes for the intervention group.
Fink et al., (2018)
found that short rest combined with low-load training may induce a high amount of metabolic stress which can lead to improved muscle hypertrophy while long rest with high-load training may lead to superior increases in strength.
Fink et al., (2016)
state that when resistance training is done until failure, training load might not affect muscle hypertophy in young men, strength and RFD changes seem to be load-dependent. In addition, a non-linear resistance training protocol switching loads every 2 weeks may not lead to superior muscle hypertrophy and strength gains when compared with straight resistance training protocol.
Medrano et al., (2012)
state that doing push-ups in unstable surfaces does not provide greater muscular strength and endurance than doing push-ups on a stable surface in young men. Therefore, regular push-ups was done in this research.
Findings by Fleck (1983)
has shown that the body has a very small phosphagen reserve, which lasts about 15 seconds. It takes the body about 3 minutes to fully replenish phosphagen stores. In other words, if more time is given to the ATP-PC system, at least 3 minutes to recharge, individuals will lift more weight and get stronger faster.
20 subjects (age 18+) are split into two groups, one control group in a periodized training where they have to consistently report how many repetitions they did on each set for all the sessions.
Anthropometric measures are done to the participants to measure the changes in the size of the shoulders, biceps and triceps, chest and back and the quadriceps with training.
Ethics and written consent forms + Risk strat form
The equipment needed for the test is a Pull-up Bar. All the participants will have to follow an 8-week program. They will do 9 sets two or three times a week: 3 sets of Pull-ups, 3 sets of Push-ups and 3 sets of Squats.
Pull-up test/ form protocol
Push-up test/ form protocol
Squat test/ form protocol
The bench press and pushup are commonly used for training upper body muscular strength and endurance.
Taren et al., (2017)
found that The bench press and pushup are two distinct upper body exercises for repetitions to failure due to upper body musculature and body position sex differences. Choice of the pushup or bench press exercise should be based on training goal and sex.
Dave et al., (2000) This test is done to measure the upper body strength of the individual
Pull-ups (Measure used COUNT)
Lipecki et al., (2015)
Without a properly balanced diet and nutrition control, the bodyweight training programme had a small impact on the parameters of body composition. It was, however, an effective way of enhancing general physical fitness: apart from improving muscle strength and endurance, it also increased physical capacity and flexibility.
Anderson et al., (2013)
investigated the effects of three resistance training programs on muscular strength and absolute and relative endurance; and found that skeletal muscles adapts to a
training stimulus and these adaptations depends on the intensity and duration of the training protocol used.
Schoenfeld et al.,(2016)
found that there is evidence suggesting l
onger rest periods to promote greater increases in muscular strength and hypertrophy in young men
Schoenfeld et al., (2015)
found that both High-load and Low-load training to failure can elicit significant increases in muscle hypertrophy among well trained young men.
Grgic et al., (2017)
investigated the effects of different rest intervals on measures of muscle hypertrophy. Short rest intervals were defined as below 60 seconds and long rest intervals, above 60 seconds. Grgic et al performed a literature search and found that both short and long rest intervals between sets may be useful to achive muscular hypertrophy. In addition,
there is a possible advantage on muscle hypertrophy with the use of longer rest intervals (i.e. above 60 seconds).
Weiss et al., (2000)
state that changes in muscle mass following heavy-resistance training is dependent upon both the training intevention and the tool used for measurement.
A systematic review and meta-analysis were done.
(Schoenfeld et al., 2017)
states that maximal strength benefits are obtained from the use of heavy loads while muscle hypertrophy can be equally achieved across a spectrum of loading ranges.
Ogasawara et al., (2013)
suggest that significant muscle hypertrophy can occur without high-load resistance training and that the focus on percentage of external loads as the important deciding factor on muscle hypertophy is too simplistic and inappropriate.
Calatayud et al., (2015)
suggest that elastic-resisted push-ups induce similar Electromyography stimulus in the prime movers as the bench press at high loads while using the core to a greater control.
There is limited research in push-ups. Suprak et al., (2011)
investigated the effect of position on the percentage of body mass supported during traditional and modified push-up variants using a force platform.
Ebben et al., (2011)
push-ups are a common and practical exercise to enhance fitness including upper body and strength or endurance. Push-up is a multijoint upper body exercise that can be done without expensive equipment.