Ch: 11 Acquiring a theory of mind (Factors that influence development…
Ch: 11 Acquiring a theory of mind
Foundations of intuitive psychology
The unexpected transfer test
Second-order false belief test
What does a character know about another know
Where does the child think that her mum will look for the chocolate?
First-order belief test
What does a character know
Mother moving the chocolate from the cupborad while the child outside. Egocentric subject thinks that as the child comes back, he will look in the cupboard.
When do children begin to understand that people hold peliefs
When clear wording, theere tends to be a sharp change
Egocentric thinking if younger
Do children acquire a theory of mind?
Deceptive box test (smarties)
Presenting the false-belief test
If bad about others' thoughts, bad at their owns too
Is there a developmental stage?
Big change between 3 to 4 year olds. Sudden stage? Lots of theories
Now we know it is a gradual change, because if the wording is changed, even 3 year olds could solve it
Signs of competence during infancy: Can infants understand false belief?
Some signs have been proofed in research. Performance factors might easily
early signs of competence in very young children.
Adult's difficulty with false beliefs
Hindsight bias, the fact that by giving already inromation to them would influence future judgements
Ex: Fight between British and Gurkha
Factors that influence development
Nature vs. Nurture
False belief can vary between cultures. Collectivistic and individualistic.
Module in our brain to understand other minds?
Difficult, it depends on the general knowledge about the task
Having older brothers tends to make a positive impact on false-belief tests
Wings'triad of impairments
Failure to understand theory of mind
Autists don't understand false belief and it's not because of wording because DS kids can still make the test
Purpose of theory of mind
Right kind of help offered
Others give a different point of view that probably we did not think of
Highly developed ability to maky psychological inferences about others