Skill acquisition lesson 8 onwards (The memory system (Baddeley and Hitch…
Skill acquisition lesson 8 onwards
The memory system
Baddeley and Hitch memory system- the working memory
Deals with sound information such as a team mates call
Helps produce memory trace(mental image of skill) which can be sent to the long term memory to trigger a motor programme that can be used for movement
Deals with visual and spatial(where) info
Helps produce a memory trace(mental idea of skill) which can be sent to long term memory to trigger a motor programme
Has overall control of the information and identifies which of the subsystems should be used
Co-ordinates auditory and visual info from working memory into sequences that can be sent to long term memory
Sequences are starting point for the initiation of a motor programme
Working memory and long term memory
It sends this memory trace to the long term memory for comparison
The long term memory the compares the memory trace to the motor programmes
When all relevant information has been collected from the display the working memory produces a memory trace(mental image of skill)
The long term memory then sends information back to working memory
Has limited capacity(5-9 items)
Has a limited time scale(approx. 30 seconds)
Receives information from the display
Sends and receives information from long term memory
Long term memory
Has a large capacity
Storage of information is permanent
Stores information as a motor programme
Sends and receives information from working memory
Strategies to improve storage of information in LTM
-make experience enjoyable
-repeatedly going over the sub-routines of a skill in your head
Overlearning the skill
-when a skill is broken down into parts/storing information into units
-extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to motivate performers
-Recalling the information as a sequence/linking info together
Making info meaningful
Relate to past experiences
What is it?
Set of "rules" to help us make decisions about movement patterns
Theory suggests, core principles can be taken from existing motor programmes and then adapted using info from environment and feedback from senses
- Prior to movement. Initiates the movement.
During movement. Controls movement.
Parameters of Schema
-What should I do? What is required?
Info from environment is used to asses available options to the performer . E.g how far away is my team mate, what pass shall I use?
-How does it feel?
Information about feel of movement(kinesthesis) E.g using stronger arm action for longer pass.
Knowledge of initial conditions
-What can I see and hear?
Info from the sporting environment. E.g position on court, position of limbs.
Comparison of actual and intended outcome(knowledge of results) E.g did the pass go to my team mate?
Implications for the coach when using schema
Make training realistic/ specific to activity
Give regular feedback/praise when schemas have been used successfully
Vary practice conditions
Build up a set of responses specifications or a list of required movements
Teach the initial skills accurately