Peripheral Nervous and Endocrine System (Names of Cranial Nerves and…
Peripheral Nervous and Endocrine System
Names of Cranial
Nerves and Function
Olfactory Nerve: Sense of smell
Optic Nerve: Vision
Oculomotor Nerve: Eyeball and eyelid movement
Trochlear Nerve: Eye movement
Trigeminal Nerve: This is the largest cranial nerve and is divided into three branches consisting of the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular nerves. Functions controlled include facial sensation and chewing.
Abducent Nerve: Eye movement
Facial Nerve: Facial expressions and sense of taste
Vestibulocochlear Nerve: Equilibrium and hearing
Glossopharyngeal Nerve: Swallowing, sense of taste, and saliva secretion
Vagus Nerve: Smooth muscle sensory and motor control in throat, lungs, heart, and digestive system
Accessory Nerve: Movement of neck and shoulders
Hypoglossal Nerve: Movement of tongue, swallowing, and speech
Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
The sympathetic nervous system is also called fight-or-flight. It increases muscle blood flow and tension, dilates pupils, accelerates heart rate and respiration, and increases perspiration and arterial blood pressure.
Sometimes called the rest and digest system, the parasympathetic system conserves energy as it slows the heart rate, increases intestinal and gland activity, and relaxes sphincter muscles in the gastrointestinal tract.
Differences Between the Functions
of the Divisions and Effects of Parasympathetic and Sympathetic on Organs
Inhibits secratory vesicle; constricts blood vessels supplying the glands
Increases rate and force of heartbeat
Stimulates copious sweating
Weakly inhibits muscle, which flattens lens for far vision
Stimulates secretion of thick, viscious saliva
Stimulates dilator pupillae; dialates pupils
Relaxes smooth muscle of bladder wall; constricts urethral opening
Stimulates muscle, which makes lens bulge (close vision)
Stimulates secretion of watery saliva
Stimulates secratory vesicle
Contracts smooth muscle of bladder wall, releases sphinctor
Decreases rate; slows heart
Stimulates sphinctor muscles; constricts pupils
Names of all the
Endocrine Organs, Hormones, and their Functions
The parathyroid gland controls calcium levels in the blood. The parathyroid is a small of glands around by the thyroid gland. They produce the parathyroid hormone or PTH, which increases the rate at which broke bone is broken down.
The thymus is a specialized organ of the immune system. The thymus “educates” T-lymphocytes (T cells), which are critical cells of the adaptive immune system.
The thyroid gland is in the front of the neck, just below the thyroid cartilage or “Adam’s apple”. The isthmus bridges the two lobes of the thyroid and is located below the cricoid cartilage.
The small, triangular adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) sit atop the kidneys. Each is divided into two distinct anatomic and functional organs.
The pituitary gland secretes nine hormones that regulate homeostasis by stimulating other endocrine glands to produce and secrete their own hormones.
The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive system and endocrine system. It is both an endocrine gland—producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide.
The pineal gland is a small, pine-cone shaped endocrine gland in the brain. It produces melatonin, a derivative of serotonin, a hormone that affects wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions.
The ovary is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs in the female reproductive system. Ovaries in women are analogous to testes in males—they are both gonads and endocrine glands.
The hypothalamus is located in the brain and links the nervous and endocrine systems to each other. It secrets hormones that put the pituitary gland into action.
The testicle is the male gonad. Like the ovaries in women to which they are homologous, testes are components of both the reproductive system and the endocrine system.
This is a pituitary hormone that helps regulate the function of the reproductive organs. It stimulates ovulation to release the egg in the woman’s ovaries. In men it triggers the testes to produce male reproductive hormones.
This is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the production of milk in the breast. It is one of several hormones that stimulate milk production or lactation.
Oxytocin is a pituitary hormone that stimulates muscle contractions in the uterus during childbirth. These contractions cause the release of more oxytocin. This is a positive feedback reaction that makes the cycle continue until the baby is born.
The hormone glucagon increases the level of sugar in the blood. It plays a vital part in maintaining the correct blood sugar level. It is made by the pancreas, a gland that is part of the endocrine system and the digestive system.
Reproductive hormones control the reproductive development of boys and girls. The development of primary and secondary characteristics and regulate all reproductive related processes such as sperm and egg production.
Epinephrine is a hormone that works with out nervous system to prepare our body to cope with danger or stress. If you’re suddenly scared, your heart pounds, your breathing becomes steep and rapid. These are just two of the effects of epinephrine, also called adrenaline.
Insulin is a hormone that reduces the level of sugar in our blood. Insulin is a protein made by the pancreas. It is released when the blood sugar level rises and reduces the sugar in 2 ways. First it makes insulin take up the glucose. 2nd in makes the liver store glucose by turning it into glycogen. Insulin and glucagon have opposite effects.