Peripheral Nervous and Endocrine System (Names and Functions of all…
Peripheral Nervous and Endocrine System
Names and Functions of all Endocrine Organs
Hypothalamus: function: produces Pituitary Gland stimulating hormones
Anterior Lobe: function: makes and releases hormones commanded by Hypothalamus.
Pineal Gland: function: produces melatonin
Posterior Lobe: function: stores and secretes/releases hormones made by Hypothalamus; for example: antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin.
Pituitary Gland: "master gland" function: signals other glands to produce hormones
Thymus Gland: function: protects body of autoimmunity until puberty around age 14. found behind sternum
Pancreas: function: maintains balance of blood sugar throughout body and secretes hormones and enzymes
Parathyroid Gland: function: secrete parathyroid hormone to regulate calcium levels. found in the back side of the thyroid (4 bumps)
Adernal Gland: 2 layers. located on top of pancreas
Adernal Medulla: Inner Layer
Adernal Cortex: Outer Layer
Thyroid Gland: function: regulates metabolism and is located
Divisions of Autonomic Nervous System
decreases respiration, circulation, heart rate, and digestive and reproductive functioning. Unlike Sympathetic Division.
normal day activities: "D"- digestion, defaction (pooping), and diuresis (urination)
starts at brainstem and sacral (S1- S4)
more associated with daily body functions
starts at thoracolumbar segments of the spinal cord (T1 - L1)
increases everything, respiration, heart rate, blood circulation, muscle movement improves, and vision is heightened
more associated with "fight or flight"
normal day activities: "E"- exercise, excitement, emergency, and embarrassment
Names and Functions of Cranial Nerves
12 pair of cranial nerves
Facial VII: motor: muscles of facial expression, sensory: taste
Vestibulococholear VII: sensory: hearing and equilibrium (balance)
Abducens VI: lateral rectus eye muscle abducts eye
Glossopharyngeal IX: motor: secretion of saliva, sensory: taste, regulation of blood pressure, proprioception of muscles involving in swallowing.
Trigeminal V: 3 branches, sensory: skin of the face, motor: chewing
Vagus X: secretion of the chest and abdominal area, motor: smooth muscle contraction and relaxation, secretion of digestive fluids, heart, lungs. sensory: from visceral organs, it supplies and proprioception
Trochlear IV: superior oblique muscle of eye
Accessory XI: head and neck movements, motor: swallowing and movements of head, sensory: proprioception
Oculomotor III: mostly motor function, function: pupillary constriction, muscles of eye and eyelid.
Hypoglossal XII: function: speech, motor: movement of tongue, sensory: proprioception
Optic II: arises from retina of the eye, function: vision
Olfactory I: sensory nerve, function: sense of smell
Names and Functions of all Hormones
HGH: stimulates groth infancy and puberty.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: controls metabolic rate by releasing thyroxine
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone: stimulates the production of melanin
ACTH: stimulates the adrenal gland to release cortisol
FSH: stimulates egg mastruation in the vary and the release of sex hormones
Antidiuretic Hormone: regulates fluid balance by volume of body fluid and decreasing urine
Thymosin: synthesized by the thymus .
Oxytocin: stimulates contraction of the uterus during labor
Testosterone: steroid hormone, develops and maintains male reproductive system
Melatonin: controls temperature, sleep, and alertness
Somatostatin:surpresses. secretion of insulin and glucagon
Cortisol: responds to injury and releases anti inflammatory also responds to stress alert
Prolactin: starts and maintains milk secretion
Adrenaline: stimulates "fight or flight" response
Luteinizing Hormone: development of ovaries and testes
ANP: promotes salt and water excretion
Glucagon: increases blood sugar
Progresrer: steroid hormone , promotes maintain of the endometrium
Insulin: decreases blood sugar
estrogen: steroid hormone, develops and maintains female and male reproductive system.
Thymosin Hormone: stimulates the development of T- cells in immune response.
Erythropoietin: stimulates bone marrow arrows provide erthyrocytes.
Parathyroid Hormone: increases calcium level in blood
Thyroid Hormone: controls the metabolic rate
Calcitonin: decreases blood calcium levels
Effects between Parasympathetic and Sympathetic divisions
Parasympathetic Divisions: effector organs- salivary glands, digestive and reproductive organs
stimulates intestinal motility
inhibits heart: dilates arterioles
stimulates salivary flow
stimulates stomach motility and secretion
stimulates tear glands
Sympathetic Divisions: effector- eyes, lungs, and heart
inhibits stomach motility and secretion
inhibits pancreas and adrenals
inhibits intestinal motility
no affection tear glands
accelerates heart: constricts arterioles
weak stimulation of salivary flow