'Faction created genuine political instability' (Faction (Cecil vs…
'Faction created genuine political instability'
Cecil vs. Essex in EVERYTHING - Cecil supported Howard, who gained Earl of Nottingham, a higher position than Essex.
Essex app. as Lord Deputy of Ireland after rebellion. Robert Cecil managed positions easier and gained more patronage.
Feb 1601, Essex + 140 others openly rebelled, taking 4 councillors as hostages. Executed for treason after siege.
Lack of loyalty - Essex and Mountjoy correspondence with James VI, and Cecil 1600-1603.
Elizabeth mostly in control though due to patronage and their reliance on this. Also, up until rebellion, all grievances were directed through proper process.
Series of Armadas sent between 1588 and 1596 - defeated by bad weather but reached English Channel and Cornwall.
Landed troops in Ireland in 1601 to aid Tyrone's Revolt.
Combined with French forces and Dutch requiring aid, resources were overstretched.
Tyrone's Revolt: kept to truce until expiry in 1600. Defeated at Battle of Kinsale in 1601 due to Mountjoy's surprise attack.
Tyrone appointed as Chief Lord of Ulster as requested (1603) as Mountjoy wanted to get in with James VI.
Remained hard to control throughout the Tudor reign and for James.
Female rule: largely ignored.
Until 1597, the parliaments raised concerns about purveyance, monopolies and the royal succession. All granted taxation and backed down without fight.
1597 parliament: criticisms on rebellion and monopolies. Elizabeth promised licences would be reviewed.
1601 parliament: a lot of angry MPs. Elizabeth cancelled some monopolies and gave 'golden speech'.
Why it wasn't a threat: parliament not integral; no fatal mistakes; granted taxation every time; and acted as safety valve between public and queen.
Harvest failure and social distress
high taxation; riots due to poor harvests/food shortage; and generally unhappy population. Wanted another Kett's Rebellion.
More paranoia than anything: no gentry involvement; no population decline; and not so geographically widespread.