Eye and the Endocrine System Carmen Ramos per. 5 (names of the hormones…
Eye and the Endocrine System Carmen Ramos per. 5
Major functions of the endocrine system
Growth and development
Metabolism and energy balance
General homeostasis w/ water, nutrient, and electrolyte balance.
To communicate w/ cells using hormones.
Major structures and functions of the eye
Fat tissue: cushions and protects the eye
Superior and inferior oblique: extrinsic muscle that helps eye movements
Lateral/medial help produce eye movements
Sclera: protects eye and gives eye shape.
Optic nerve: takes and transmits images to brain
Cornea: helps in focusing images onto retina and gives protection.
Aqueous humor: helps keep shape of cornea.
Pupil: opening of the iris
Iris: controls light that enters eye
Lens: focuses image from the environment
Ciliary muscles: controls size of lens
Vitreous humor: clear jelly-like substance that helps shape of the eye.
Retina: houses sight receptors that translate light impulses into neural inputs that interprets images.
blind spot: where retina attaches.
Rods and cones: Helps see in dim light and perceive range of colors.
Tapetum lucidum: reflects light onto retina.
Choroid layer: houses blood vessels that brings oxygen and nutrients to back of eye.
Major glands/organs and their functions
Anterior Pituitary: Produces 6 important hormones. Can trigger the stimulation of the thyroid gland. And can produce milk.
Posterior Pituitary: prevents water loss and triggers uterine contractions during childbirth and produce milk for breastfeeding.
thyroid gland: prevents water loss, reduce blood flow to sweat glands, and reduce concentration of calcium ions in blood to aid in absoprtion of calcium into matrix of bones.
Adrenal cortex: produce (PTH) that stimulates osteoclasts that break down calcium containing bone matrix. Triggers kidneys to return calcium ions. Breaks down proteins and lipids to produce glucose and regulate concentration of mineral ions.
Adrenal Medulla: produces epinephrine and norepinephrine that helps increase blood flow improving "Flight or fight" response.
Pancreas (Islets): lowers blood glucose levels and raises blood glucose levels. Triggers absoroption of glucose from blood into cells. produces androgen testosterone.
testes: cause growth and increases strength of bones and muscles. controls development of sex organs and body hair.
Ovaries: maintains conditions to support developing fetus. develops uterine development, breast development, and growth of public hair. increases growth in bones.
Pineal Gland:regulate human sleep-wake cycle.
Thymus: helps to train and develop T-lymphocytes during fetal development and childhood. protects body from pathogens.
names of the hormones produced and their target organs w/functions
Polypeptides and proteins./ Target organs: Porathyroid hormone Functions: Polypeptides help in growth and glucose.. Proteins help in transport of materials in body, speeding up chemical reactions, and its hormones.
Glycoproteins./ Target organ: Follicle-stimulating hormone. Function: Important for cell interactions.
Peptides./ Target organs: Norepinephine, epinephine, etc. Function: helps in homeostasis and maintaining health.
Steroids/ Target organs: Estrogen, testosterone, etc. Functions: Help control metabolism, salt and water balance, and ability to stand against injury and sickness.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone/ Targets: Thyroid gland/ Function: Responsible for stimulation of thyroid gland.
Growth Hormone./Targets: target cells, hypothalamus./ Function: Produces 6 other hormones.
ACTH/ Targets: Adrenal cortex/ Function: Produces its own hormones.
PRL/ Targets: Mammary gland/ Function: Produces milk
FSH/ Targets: follicle cells/ Function: producing gametes-ova in fem and sperm in males.
LH/ Targets: gonads/ Function: Sex hormones-estrogen in fem and testosterone in males.
Antidiuretic hormone (Vasopressin) (ADH)/ Targets: Kidney/ Function: prevents water loss.
Oxytocin/ Targets: Ovary and testes/ Function: triggers uterine contractions
Thyroid Hormone (TH)/ Targets: Kidneys/ Function: prevents water loss and reduce blood flow to sweat glands
Calcitonin/ Targets: matrix of bones / Function: reduce concentration of calcium ions in blood by aiding absoprtion of calcium in matrix of bones.
(PTH)/ Targets: kidneys, skeleteal system, and intestine/ Function: Produce (PTH) stimulates breakdown of calcium.
Cortisol (glucocorticoids)/ Targets: supports superior kidney/ Functon: breakdown of proteins and lipids to produce glucose.
Aldosterone(mineralocorticoids)/ Targets: superior of kidney/ Function: help regulate concentration of mineral ions
Epinephrine/ Norepinephrine/ Targets: autonomic nervous system/ Function: helps increase blood flow
Insulin/ Targets: abdominal cavity/ Function:lowers sugar blood levels and triggers absorption of glucose from blood into cells.
Glucagon/ Targets: abdominal cavity/ Function: raises sugar levels
Testosterone/ Targets: scrotum/ Function: causes growth and development.
Estrogen/ Targets: Pelvic body/ Function: causes growth and development
Progesterone/ Targets: pelvic body/ Function: Maintains conditions to support developing fetus.
Melatonin/ Targets: Thalamus/ Function: Regulate human sleep-wake-cycle.
Thymosin/ Targets: Chest/ Function: help body to train and develop.
Diseases associated with the endocrine system
Hyposecretion of GH: can result to pituitary dwarfism. May reach only 4ft. In adults causes no problems usually.
Hyperthroidism: Causes high metabolic rate. Rapid heartbeat. Weight loss and nervousness.
Hypersecretion of GH: results in in gigantism. Adults have overgrowth of feet, hands, and face.
Graves Disease: Autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthroidism.
Goiter: when thryroid needs iodine to produce T3 and T4. Lack of iodine causes swelling of thyroid.
Hypothyroidism: Under-active thyroid/ can cause fatigue, weight gain or difficulty in losing weight.Can cause dwarfism (cretinism) having adults appear child-like.
Diabetes (Type 1): when beta cells don't make insulin. Weakens immune system and can damage nerves.
Diabetes(Type 2): insulin resistant where cells don't respond to insulin.