The Eye and the Endocrine System, Luis Madrigal P.5 (Diseases associated…
The Eye and the Endocrine System, Luis Madrigal P.5
Major structures and
functions of the eye
fibrous “white” part of eye
dark pigment layer (under the sclera)
opening that lets light into eye
Dim light-pupil becomes big
Bright light-pupil is small
circular muscle; controls the size of pupil
focuses light rays onto forvea
Ciliary Body (muscle)
controls shape of lens
jelly like fluid maintains eyeball shape
layer of sensory receptors
small depression of high concentration of cones
region with no receptors
mucous membrane covering the surface of the sclera
Major functions of the endocrine system
Works with the nervous system to maintain homeostasis.
Is made up of the cells, tissues, and organs that secrete
hormones into body fluids.
Hormones diffuse into the bloodstream to act on target cells some distance away.
The body has two kinds of glands
Exocrine (secretes products into ducts)
Endocrine (secrete products into body fluids to affect target cells).
The endocrine system’s function is to communicate with cells using chemicals called hormones.
Endocrine glands and their hormones regulate a number of metabolic processes within cells,
Their actions are precise, they only affect specific target cells.
Major glands/organs and their
Works on releasing and inhibiting hormones, which stop and start the production of other hormones throughout the body
Produces melatonin, which helps maintain circadian rhythm and regulate reproductive hormones.
The hypothalamus sends signals to the pituitary to release or inhibit pituitary hormone production.
The thyroid regulates your metabolism.
Parathyroid hormone regulates the body’s calcium levels.
Thymosin is the hormone of the thymus, and it stimulates the development of disease-fighting T cells.
The adrenal glands are two glands that sit on top of your kidneys that are made up of two distinct parts.
The pancreas maintains the body’s blood glucose (sugar) balance.
The ovaries maintain the health of the female reproductive system.
The testes secrete testosterone, which is necessary for proper physical development in boys.
Names of the hormones produced and their target organs along with functions
Stimulates thyroid gland
Stimulates adrenal cortex
Stimulates mammary glands
Stimulates follicle cells
prevents water loss in the body
Triggers uterine contractions
Regulates body's metabolic rate
Reduces the concentration of calcium
Breakdown of proteins
Lowers the glucose levels in our blood
Releases glucose into the bloodstream
Produces sex hormones
Releases estrogen into the body
Develops the fetus
associated with the endocrine system
Clouding of the lens that causes the world to appear distorted
Damage to the optic nerve causes progressive loss, eventually leads to blindness
Can see distant objects well but distant objects appear blurry
Unequal curvatures in different parts of the cornea
Can see close objects well but distant objects appear blurry
Inability to perceive colors due to defective cones
Inflammation of the conjuctiva usually from bacteria
•In children results in gigantism
•In adults results in acromegaly
•In children results in pituitary dwarfism
May be genetic or caused by
tumor on thyroid
Autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism
swelling of the thyroid
Diabetes mellitus type I
beta cells don’t make insulin leading to
blood sugar being too high
Diabetes mellitus type II
Body produces insulin, but the cells
do not respond to it
Too much cortisol in your body for a prolonged period of time