Eye & Endocrine System Kayla Cortez P.1 (Names of the Hormones…
Eye & Endocrine System Kayla Cortez P.1
Major Structures & Functions of the Eye
Fibrous Layer- The outermost coating of the eyeball, composed of dense avascular connective tissue
Sclera: Thick tough, white outer covering of the eyeball. Keeps eye round, provides protection, and gives it durability in shape.
Cornea: Clear, tough covering over the iris and pupil that helps protect the eye, provides assistance in focusing images into retina and begins focusing light.
Vascular Layer- Forms middle coat of the eyeball
Ciliary Body: Controls shape of the lens.
Iris: Controls the size of the pupil.
Choroid: Houses many blood vessels necessary to bring oxygen and nutrients to the back of the eye.
Pupil: opening that lets light into the eye.
Inner Layer- develops from an extension of the brain
Retina: Houses slight receptors that translate light impulses into neural inputs that the brain can interpret as images.
Tapetum Lucidum: Reflects light into retina in levels of low light.
Internal Chambers and Fluids
Vitreous Humor: Maintains shape of the eye and carries debris away from eye.
Lens: can change shape to focus light on retina.
Optic Nerve: Sends sensory information to the brain
Fatty Tissue: Cushions the eye
Diseases Associated with Endocrine System
May be caused by an ACTH releasing pituitary tumor. That would be called Cushing's Disease. The syndrome is characterized by persistent elevated blood glucose levels, dramatic loss in muscle and bone protein, and water and salt retention leading to hypertension and edema.
Major hypersecretory disorder of the Adrenal Cortex. The affected tend to lose weight.
Autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism and bulging of the eyes (exophthalmos).
Diabetes Mellitus (DM)
Results from either hyposecretion or hypoactivity of insulin.
Hypersecretion in children result in Gigantism because GH targets are still active epiphyseal (growth) plates.
Imbalance of GH
Hypersecretion of GH is usually caused by anterior pituitary tumor.
One result of ADH deficiency marked by intense thirst and huge uterine output. Insulin defficiency causes large amounts of blood glucose to be lost in the uterine. Caused by pituitary tumor or a large blow to the head
May be caused by tumor on thyroid or genetic. Too much thyroxine which causes high metabolic rate, rapid heartbeat, weightloss, and nervousness.
Under active thyroid. Causes dwarfism in which adult body proportions remain childlike.
Thyroid needs iodine to produce T3 and T4. Lack of iodine can lead to Goiter. Causes swelling of they thyroid.
Type 1 Diabetes
When beta cells don't make insulin blood sugar begins to be too high. Causing calls to burn fat or protein instead of sugar which makes sugar leak into the uterine, weakens immune system and can damage nerves.
Type 2 Diabetes
When body produces insulin but the body doesn't respond to it. Leading to insulin production to decrease. Causing some, but not all, to become overweight.
Names of the Hormones Produced and their target Organ along with Functions
Melatonin- Helps regulate the human sleep-wake cycle. Causes sleepyness
Testosterone- the start of puberty in males
Muscles, Bones, sex organs, Hair Follicles
Oxytocin- triggers uterine contractions during childbirth and the release of milk during breast feeding.
Calcitonin- released when calcium ion levels in blood rise above a certain set point. Reduces concentration of calcium ions in blood by aiding absorption od calcium into matrix of bones
Antidiuretic Hormone (Vasopressin ADH)- prevents water loss in the body by increasing the reuptake of water in kidneys and reducing flow to sweat glands.
Glucagon- responsible for raising blood glucose levels.
Lutenizing Hormone (LH)- stimulates gonads to produce sex hormones- estrogen in females and testosterone in males.
Thyroid Hormone (T4, T3)- regulates body's metabolic rate
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)- stimulates follicle cells of the gonads to produce ova in females, and sperm in males.
Estrogen- Primary female sex hormones, breast development, uterine development, growth of pubic hair, and adult height.
Uterus and Hair Follicles
Thymosin- Helps to train and develop T-lymphocytes during fetal growth and childhood and protects the body.
White Blood Cells
Cortisol (Glucocorticoids)- breakdown of proteins and lipids to produce glucose. Reduces inflamation and immune response.
Proteins and Lipids
Progesterone- Maintains appropriate conditions for the human body to support a developing fetus
Mammary Glands, Uterus
Epinephrine/Norepinephrine- increases flow of blood to the brain and muscles. Helps improve "fight or flight" response to stress.
Musclues and blood vessels
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)- involved in calcium ion homeostasis.
Bones, intestines, and kidneys
Insulin- responsible for lowering blood sugar levels after a meal.
Prolactin (PRL)- chief of which is that stimulates mammary glands of breasts to produce milk
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)- stimulates adrenal cortex to produce hormones.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)- tropic hormone responsible for stimulation of the thyroid gland.
Growth Hormone (GH)- affects as many target cells throughout body by stimulating their growth, repair and reproduction.
Aldosterone (mineralcorticoids)- help regulate concentration of mineral ions in the body.
Major Functions of the Endocrine System
Works with the Nervous System to maintain Homeostasis.
Made up of cells, tissues and organs.
Influences metabolic activity by means of hormones.
Secrete hormones into body fluids and fluid diffuses into the bloodstream to act on target cells a distance away.
Major Glands/Organs & their Function
Parathyroid Glands- regulates the body's calcium levels.
Adrenal Glands- rapidly prepares body's ability to break down food and convert it into energy.
Thyroid Gland- regulates metabolism, aka the body's ability to break down food and convert it to energy.
Pancreas- secretes hormones into blood (endocrine) and secretes enzymes through ducts (exocrine)
Pituitary Gland- help regulate functions of other endocrine glands. The two parts contain the anterior and posterior lobe; both in which have separate functions.
Ovary (famale)- maintains health of female reproduction system and secretes the two main hormones estrogen and progesterone
Hypothalamus- synthesizes and secretes neurohormones, often called hypothalamic-releasing hormones.
Testis (male)- secretes testosterone necessary for physical development in males
Pineal Gland- produces melatonin to help maintain circadian rhythm and regulate reproductive hormones.