The Eye and The Endocrine System Christina Gatica, Period 1 (Major…
The Eye and The Endocrine System Christina Gatica, Period 1
Major structures and functions of the Eye
protects and shapes the eyeball
opening which through light passes
regulates amount of light entering the eye
allows light to enter the light
allows light to be properly focused
contains photo receptors that convert light
lines the surface of the eyelid, and secretes mucous that lubricates the eyeball
extrinsic eye muscles
controls eye movement
prevents light scatter within the eye
controls lens shape
transmits visual information from the eye to the brain
the blind spot; where the optic nerve leaves the eye
maintain intraocular pressure of the eye
provides major internal reinforcement of the posterior part of the eye.
Major functions of the Endocrine System
responsible for the direct control of the endocrine system through the pituitary gland
The hypothalamus contains special cells called neurosecretory cells—neurons that secrete hormones
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Major glands and organs and their functions
produces 6 important hormones
The function of the anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the releasing and inhibiting hormones of the hypothalamus
Thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic, follicle stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone, human growth hormone, Prolactin hormone
Oxytocin triggers uterine contractions during childbirth and the release of milk during breastfeeding
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) prevents water loss in the body by increasing the re-uptake of water in the kidneys and reducing blood flow to sweat glands.
small pinecone-shaped mass of glandular tissue found just posterior to the thalamus of the brain.
the activity of the pineal gland is inhibited by stimulation from the photoreceptors of the retina.
Increased melatonin production causes humans to feel drowsy at nighttime when the pineal gland is active
produces 3 major hormones
Calcitonin, Triiodothyronine, and thyroxine
produces three major hormones: Calcitonin, Triiodothyronine, Thyroxine
Calcitonin is released when calcium ion levels in the blood rise above a certain set point.
produces many cortical hormones in 3 classes; glucocorticioids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens
Glucocorticioids: break down proteins and lipids to produce glucose. Also function to reduce inflammation and immune response
Mineralocorticoids: group of hormones that help to regulate the concentration of mineral ions in the body
Androgens: produced at low levels in the adrenal cortex to regulate the growth and activity of cells that are receptive to male hormones
produces the hormones epinephrine and nor epinephrine under stimulation by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
They help release the flow of blood to the brain and muscles to improve the fight or flight response to stress.
the pancreas is considered to be a heterocrine gland as it contains both endocrine and exocrine tissue.
The alpha cells produce the hormone glucagon, which is responsible for raising blood glucose levels. Glucagon triggers muscle and liver cells to break down the polysaccharide glycogen to release glucose into the bloodstream.
The beta cells produce the hormone insulin, which is responsible for lowering blood glucose levels after a meal
These sex hormones determine the secondary sex characteristics of adult females and adult males.
Testes: This hormone causes growth and increases in strength of the bones and muscles, including the accelerated growth of long bones during adolescence
The thymus produces hormones called thymosins that help to train and develop T-lymphocytes during fetal development and childhood
The thymus becomes inactive during puberty and is slowly replaced by adipose tissue throughout a person’s life.
capable of producing the hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in response to high blood pressure levels.
ANP also reduces blood volume and pressure by causing water and salt to be excreted out of the blood by the kidneys.
produce the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) in response to low levels of oxygen in the blood
The hormones cholecystokinin (CCK), secretin, and gastrin are all produced by the organs of the gastrointestinal tract
produces the hormone leptin that is involved in the management of appetite and energy usage by the body. Leptin is produced at levels relative to the amount of adipose tissue in the body, allowing the brain to monitor the body’s energy storage condition
In pregnant women, the placenta produces several hormones that help to maintain pregnancy
also prevents premature delivery of the fetus
Name of hormone and their target organs and functions
Growth Hormone (GH): targets the target cells
affects many target cells throughout the body by stimulating their growth, repair, and reproduction.
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH): targets the thyroid gland
a tropic hormone responsible for the stimulation of the thyroid gland.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH): targets the adrenal cortex
stimulates the adrenal cortex, the outer part of the adrenal gland, to produce its hormone.
Prolactin (PRL): targets memmary glands
stimulates the mammary glands of the breast to produce milk
Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH): targets the follice cells
stimulates the follicle cells of the gonads to produce gametes in females and sperm in males.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH): targets the glands
stimulates the gonads to produce the sex hormones estrogen in females and testosterone in males.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH): targets the kidneys
Function: prevents water loss in the body by increasing the re-uptake of water in the kidneys and reducing blood flow to sweat glands.
Oxytocin hormone: targets the uterus and the breasts
Function: triggers uterine contractions during childbirth and the release of milk during breastfeeding.
Thyroid Hormone: targets metabolism
regulates metabolic rate
Calcitonin: targets the calcium bons
reduce the concentration of calcium lens in the blood.
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) : target the osteocytes
Function: helps with calcium ion homeostasis occurs when calcium levels in the blood drop below a set point.
Cortisol (glucocorticoids) hormones: target are the inflammation lipids
Function: breakdown of proteins and lipids to produce glucose.
reduces inflammation and immune response
Aldosterone (mineralocorticoids) hormone: target the kidneys
Function: help regulate the concentration of mineral ions int he body
Epinephrine/ Norepinephrine hormone: targets the blood flow
helps increase the flow of the blood to the brain and muscles to improve the fight or flight response to stress.
Insulin hormone: target is the blood
Function: produced by alpha cells which is responsible for raising blood glucose levels
Glucagon hormone: target are the muscle and liver cells
Function: produced by alpha cells responsible for raising blood glucose levels.
testosterone: targets the muscles and liver cells
regulate the growth and activity of cells that are receptive to male hormones
In adult males androgen are produced more by the testis which leads to appearance of male secondary sex characteristics.
Estrogen hormone: target are the muscles
Function: function as the primary female sex hormones
Progesterone hormone: target are the uter glands
Function: most active in females during ovulation and pregnancy where it maintains appropriate conditions int he human body to support a developing fetus.
Thymosin: targets the T-Cells and the blood
help to train and develop t-lymphocytes during fetal development and childhood.
Inactive during puberty ad slowly replaced by adipose tissue
Melatonin hormone: target is the brain tissue
Function: Helps regulate the human sleep-rate
diseases associated with the endocrine system
abnormal production of thyroid hormones
bone disease that occurs when the body loses too much bone, makes too little bone, or both
Adrenal gland disorder
Cushing's syndrome, there's too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. Some people are born unable to make enough cortisol