Eye and Endocrine System Ana Chen Period 1 Ms. Yang (Hormones and their…
Eye and Endocrine System Ana Chen Period 1 Ms. Yang
Structure and Function
Pupil: hole within the eye allowing light into the iris
Ciliary Body: produces aqueous humor and contains the muscle that adjusts the lens.
Aqueous Vitale: supplies nutrition to the eyeball
Optic nerve: connects eye to the brain for function
Cornea: focuses the light.
Lens: bends the light
Iris: controls how much light can enter through the pupil
Retina: converts light from the iris into neural signals that the brain can read
Sclera: tough outer protecting the eye ("the white" of the eye)
Vitreous Body: helps the eye maintain its shape
Heart: releases peptides that lower blood pressure and regulate the release of these peptides.
Pancreas: regulates digestion and the intake of hormones in the digestive system.
Testes: produces testosterone which controls development and puberty
Ovaries: produce estrogen and progesterone, regulating the secretion of these into the body and growth and development
Kidneys: produces renin which regulates hormones within the body.
Hormones and their Functions
estrogen: created in the gonads and promote the development and maintenance of female characteristics of the body
glucagon: a hormone formed in the pancreas which promotes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver.
insulin: made within the pancreas to store glucose
progesterone: prevents changes in uterus in women taking estrogen
melatonin: assists in sleep wake cycles.
epinephrine: aka ADRENALINE secreted by the medulla of the adrenal gland. Triggers fear and anger and causes an increase in heart rate and blood pressure.
Anterior lobe: releases growth hormones, endorphins, secreting many different types of hormones.
Posterior Lobe: releases two main hormones: oxytocin and vasopressin. Oxytocin stimulates breast milk and contractions and vasopressin stimulates the conservation of water in the body.
Hypothalamus: links the nervous and endocrine system and regulates body temperature.
Thyroid: regulates the release of hormones, controlling metabolism and growth and development
Parathyroid: controls the body's calcium levels and produces PTH (parathryroid hormone)
Pineal body: not much is known but it regulates melatonin which controls sleep patterns.
Diseases of the Endocrine System
Diabetes: when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin within the body
Thyroiditis: inflammation causing faults within the thyroid.
Hypothyroidism: condition where the thyroid does not produce enough thyroid hormone
Parathyroid disease: less production of calcium which results in a faulty system and can result in weak bone marrow etc.