The Eye and Endocrine System, Diego Cerna, Period 2 (Major structures and…
The Eye and Endocrine System, Diego Cerna, Period 2
Major structures and functions of the eye
extrinsic eye muscles-control eye movement
conjunctiva-lines the surface of eyelid;
secretes mucous that lubricates the eyeball.
sclera-protects and shapes the eyeball.
cornea-allows light to enter they eye.
choroid coat-prevents light scatter within the eye.
ciliary body-controls lens shape.
iris-regulates the amount of light that enters the eye.
pupil-the opening through which light passes.
optic nerve-transmits visual information from the eye to the brain
retina-contains photo receptors that convert light
optic disc-the blind spot where the optic nerve leaves the eye.
lens-allows light to be properly focused
papetum lucidum(only in animals)-reflects light within the eye; in animals that live under conditions of low-intensity light
vitreous humor-provides major internal reinforcement of the posterior part of the eye.
aqueous humor-maintain intraocular pressure of the eye
Major functions of the endocrine system
To maintain homeostasis (controls homeostasis by secreting hormones into capillaries and transports them throughout the body in the blood)
using food to produce energy
maintaining pH and body fluid balance
Major glands/organs and their
ovaries-Secretion of estrogens by the ovarian follicles begins at puberty under the influence of FSH. Estrogens stimulate maturation of the female reproductive system and development of the secondary sexual characteristics. Progesterone is released in response to high blood levels of LH. It works with estrogens in establishing the menstrual cycle.
pancreas-The alpha and beta cells are the endocrine cells in the pancreatic islets that release insulin and glucagon and smaller amounts of other hormones into the blood.
testes-Testosterone promotes maturation of the male reproductive organs, development of secondary sex characteristics such as beard, hoarse voice, etc. and production of sperm by the testes.
pituitary gland-The hypothalamus sends signals to the pituitary to release or inhibit pituitary hormone production.
thyroid gland-The thyroid hormones increase the rate of cellular metabolism, and include thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Secretion is stimulated by the hormone TSH, secreted by the anterior pituitary.
pineal gland- It primarily releases melatonin, which influences daily rhythms and may have an antigonadotropic effect in humans
parathyroid gland-causes an increase in blood calcium levels by targeting bone, the intestine, and the kidneys. PTH is the antagonist of calcitonin. PTH release is triggered by falling blood calcium levels and is inhibited by rising blood calcium levels.
hypothalamus- secrete releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones that stimulate or inhibit production of hormones in the anterior pituitary
adrenal glands- produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol. It controls the behavior during crisis and emotional situations. It stimulates the heart and its conducting tissues and metabolic processes.
Major glands/organs and their
Thyroid-produces hormones that regulate body heat and bone growth, produces thyroxine which controls the way cells release energy from nutrients.
parathyroid gland-produces a hormone that regulates the body calcium and phosphoras balance
testes-male reproductive gland , also controls development in secondary sex like puberty
ovaries-female reproductive gland, also controls development in secondary sex like puberty.
hypothalamus-links the endocrine system with the nervous system and stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete hormones
pineal gland-secretes melatonin, regulates sleep cycles and is thought to affect the onset of puberty.
pituatary gland-regulates and controls activities of other endocrine glands
Thymus gland-regulates development of immune system
adrenal glands-produce hormones that regulate the body's salt and water balance secretions from the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla control the body's emergency response
pancreas-regulates the amount of glucose in your blood glucagon and insulin