10. Managing ocean pollution (Strategies to manage waste on different…
10. Managing ocean pollution
Main sources, causes and consequences of ocean pollution
Hugh's fish fight video
Fewer of the large fish mean more species that eat zooplankton which eats the algae containing the chemicals. Therefore more algae and less oxygen.
800,000 signatures to support the discard ban, implemented across Europe.
surface gyres - Great pacific garbage patch
plastic accounts for 90% of all rubbish floating in the ocean
Measures the size of France.
92% is made up of larger products which will inevitably biodegrade. Takes 500 years to degrade into nurdles. These still contain harmless chemicals.
Fibre planktons coincide with the nurdles, passing chemicals though the food chain.
Linked together by the
North Pacific Subtropical Convergence Zone,
moving debris from
Japan to the west coast of North America
95% of birds washed up on Scottish beaches had plastic debris in their stomach
UK used 5 million tonnes of plastic per year
2 million plastic bottles are used every 5 minutes in the USA.
microbeads used in showergels and toothpastes
that Greenpeace are now campaigning to be banned globally.
gyre - large system of circulating ocean currents
An average Japanese consumer uses as many as 300 to 400 plastic bags annually
"Reducing plastic loads by 50% in the top 10 ranked rivers would reduce the total river based load in the sea by 45%"
Scientists from the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental research in Germany
floating plastic has accumulated in 5 subtropical gyres
that cover 40% of the world ocean
80% of British anchovy that have been found dead had plastic waste in their digestive systems
vast quantity of plastic in the oceans is a result of
waste mismanagement, population density on coasts and water cycle movements
Eutrophication dead zones
Gulf of Mexico
Main pollutant is
farm fertiliser, washing into the Atlantic from the Mississippi River
Western part of bay is full of factories and urban centres than emit nitrogen into the air.
the eastern part of the bay is the centre for poultry farming, producing large amount of manure.
Atmospheric oxygen accounts for 1/3 of nitrogen that enters the bay. Algae bloom de-oxygenates the water.
Home to 7 of the worlds 10 largest marine dead zones
Overfishing of Baltic cod has intensified the problem
in 2001, 2 million litres of oil were spilled in a collision on the Baltic Sea
Strategies to manage waste on different scales
International/Global - UNCLOS
states bound by UNCLOS rules prohibit dumping of waste in the sea
Regional - Gulf of Mexico management
Established the Watershed Nutrient Task force in 1997.
Mission is to reduce the size of the dead zone to less than 5,000 square km.
Regional - Baltic Sea Strategy
the first region targeted by the EU to combat pollution, dead zones, overfishing nd regional disputes
EU coordination with eight EU member than Border the Baltic Sea: Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Sweden.
National - Plastic bag charge 2016
In 2014 7.6 billion single use plastic bags
were given to customers by major supermarkets in England.
Since the plastic bag charge, there has been an 80% reduction in plastic bags in England.
over the next 10 years it will raise of £780 million
that will benefit the UK economy
EU will soon take similar measures to reduce consumption of lightweight plastic bags
Local - Plastiki
Putting compressed CO2 into
12,500 bottles and creating a functioning ship that sailed through the Pacific Garage Patch
Hugh's fish fight video
800,000 signatures to support the discard ban helped to implement the ban across Europe.
Small actions creating big change
Ocean cleanups from the Marine Conservation Society
was used to create a boom nicknamed Boomy McBoomface, (valuing €1.5 million) launched in Hague in 2016, an artificial coastline built to catch debris.
Other NGOs such as
Greenpeace, The Ocean Cleanup and the Marine Conservation Society
have campaigned the issues
evaluating the success
Plastic use is projected to quadruple globally by 2050 - are we 'too little too late' with all the existing stock of plastic still in our oceans?
described as a
that should be tackled by interconnected players and stakeholders
Great barrier reef conservation
Why should it be protected?
Worlds largest coral reef covering 38,000km squared
30 species of whale and dolphin
1600 species of fish
Coral bleaching is extremely vulnerable here. Of all the 540 reefs in the area, all but 4 are damaged.
95% are in the severely bleaching categories.
In 2016, temperatures in the northern section of the reef rose 2-3°C about the normal peak of 30°C, because of the strong
el Nino weather system
and continuing trend towards global warming
Great Barrier Reef foundation
Fundings go to scientific research
only charity in the world dedicated exclusively to protecting the Great Barrier reef
BBC filmed a series about it in 2015 and an episode of Blue Planet 2 was watched by 15 million people in the UK.
Tourism is a $6 billion dollar industry employing over 70,000 people all together
Tourism operations also collect data on key species which is then fed back to the Marine Park Authority.
For example coral bleaching events or Crown-of-thron starfish appearing.
Environmental precautions taken by the industry.
Use aeroplanes because they have the best fuel per per passenger seat mile. Reduced fuel burn by 75%.
pledged to spend £600 million in 2016 to improve water quality around the reef.
UNESCO awarded the reef with
outstanding universal value
in 1972 and placed it on the World Heritage List.
delivering on the Paris Agreement is key to helping it survive.
49 marine sites (including 29 coral reef systems) are classified as areas of 'outstanding universal value'
(includes the Wadden Sea in the North Sea where 10,000 birds migrate to on the way to their breeding areas.)
The Marine Science and James Cook University research how to best conserve the reef