7. Global flows of shipping and sea cables (Seafloor cable data networks…
7. Global flows of shipping and sea cables
trends, networks and regulations of shipping
Shipping liners and Inter model containers
More than 600 million containers move across our oceans each year
Largest vessel is 400m long and has a width of 60m. Can
carry 21,000 intermodal containers
Supply vs demand of shipping is decreasing. Too many ships now operate for the decline in China's economic growth,
resulting in fewer post recession exports in the west.
Oil tankers crisis for China
Chinas two biggest state owned container shipping lines, Cosco and China shipping, announces plans to merge in 2016 and be called China Cosco.
Rare bright spot for shipping container industry oil Panama Canal expansions
to deploy up to 13,000 20ft containers per ship that are large and more modern
Ship breaking in Bangladesh
one of the most dangerous jobs in the world
Daily exposure to hazardous materials like PCB and asbestos led. European countries do not clean their boats beforehand
working 12-16 hour per day within safety measures
in 2016, average of 2 workers died per month
illegal trans-oceanic flows
crossing the Mediterranean
has become a profitable business, but more than 10,000 people have died since 2014.
Management: The Topaz Responder,
with crew members from the Migrant Offshore Aid Station (MOAS). The responder can accommodate up to 300 passengers and has an on-board hospital
Management: Operation Sophia is a military operation the EU established
as a result of the 2015 Lybian migrant shipwrecks. 13,000 people have been rescued over the course of the operation
Migrants get stuck in Lybia
because authorities don't have the means to deport them, so they travel from Lybia to Greece in the cover of darkness.
Management: The Phoenix
is a fishing trawler converted into a rescue vessel by a private organisation to patrol the waters and save as many people as they can.
Europe has 70,000km of coastline, which is poorly monitored.
This weakness is exploited by criminals.
In 2004 the MET police Force seized 714 guns from the streets of London. Many of them move by ship from Eastern Europe.
Management: the Ship and Port Security Code
was introduced by the UN in 2001, giving ports authorities heightened security powers to monitor and board vessels.
Slavery at sea
UK fishing industry increasingly reliant on foreign labour.
Some workers do not have permission to live inside the UK but work offshore on boats that are beyond checks by the police and welfare officers.
wages are so low that their cases amount to modern slavery in an industry worth £770 million
Management: Investigations and surveillance by crime agencies such as NCA.
Management: Repatriation from rescued workers,
for example International Transport Workers Federation (ITF) who has been involved in the repatriation of dozens of foreign fishermen from UK boats.
Seafloor cable data networks
based in America
If there is an attack they switch traffic
MAREA internet cable
"tide" in Spanish
Microsoft and Facebook invested and involved
40,000 miles of cable
Stretches to both sides of the Atlantic
South east Asia, Middle East and Western Europe
located from UK to Singapore
18 hosted counties, 17 landing stations
400 GB per second
Impact on globalisation
Every scan of M&S food purchases makes an automatic adjustment to the size of supply in countries like Kenya
Self employed citizens have aspects of global markets via Amazon/Ebay
Access to remote education and healthcare , e.g. enrolling to MOOCs.
Facebook, twitter, instagram
In 2017 Despacito because the first video to hit 3 billion views.
Gangnam Style the most watched video in 2012, with 1.8 billion views
Viral videos and online posts had a major impact on the 2017 election
Political issues and agenda can quickly gain popularity
most data cables owned by TNC's like Facebook
99% of all international data is transported via cables
Risk to seafloor data cable networks
2011 Tsunami Japan
Half of the existing Pacific cables were damaged in some form
Asian telecom operators reported some disruptions
Partial restoration but rerouting optically communications traffic over undamaged cables via satellites
Most countries in the Middle East left completely without internet
More than half (50-60%) of India's bandwidth had been lost
Technology, banking and stock market industries all struggled
7.1 Richer scale earthquake in Taiwan killed 2 people
Russian fleet modernisation had led to the, threatening to cut or disrupt these systems
4-5 times a week Russia fly to the edge of our airspace to test the RAFs response
Possibilites for underwater robots that could reach the larger cables
If war was to occur, countries would be blind without internet connection, therefore it is our biggest and most exposed weakness