9. Managing marine environments (Global commons (High seas :!!: (Whaling…
9. Managing marine environments
UNCLOS under pressure
from landlocked countries, Islands built in China and Arctic exploration
Fish stocks under crisis of successful management.
Tragedy of the commons
International Whaling Commission (IWC
Japan pulled out of IWC in December 2018 and will continue whaling in July
since 1992. 10 Nations continue to use this
MARPOL - International convention for the prevention of pollution from ships
bans dumping of waste and pollutants into oceans
inducing air pollution regulations since 2008
been in force since 1973
high seas make up 60% of our oceans, areas beyond national jurisdiction.
200 Wales killed for 'scientific reasons' in Japan in 2014.
Accused of by votes from whaling companies for political gain
1986 law allows indigenous communities to whale
Iceland and Norway also still undertake whaling
40% of CO2 emissions comes from USA and China alone.
CCAMLR - Convention of the Conservation of Arctic Marine Living Resources
- attempts to manage fish around the arctic
500,000 pieces of space junk in our solar system
all examples of
Tragedy of the commons - short term optimisation, long term devastation
main driver of globalisation
causes and consequences of over-exploitation
cause: consumer demand in developed/emerging economies
China, India, Indonesia and the Philippines all have a predicted 1 billion people escaping poverty and becoming middle class consumers by 2025.
positive correlation between fish and mean consumption and the rise on consumer countries
fish is the main stable of their diet
typically throw away 80-90% of by-catch
Common fisheries policy says all EU stocks should be sustainable fished by 2020.This is often ignored by international leaders.
North sea and NE Atlantic nearly 50% of all stocks are overfished
5 million tonnes annually.
10,000 tonnes blue tailed tuna a year is the recommended amount by scientists.
Increase quota went to 29,000. Final number that was
caught that year was 60,000.
Pole and line technique extremely effective but extremely unethical
Water jets break up shadow of the boat. Live bake fish and hunt from the water to attract Tuna.
Tuna accounts for 30 times more fish than all fish caught by subsidence fishing
Indian Ocean, Australia
sea shepherd - operation driftnet
small boats motor activity of suspicious vessels and fivers sent to investigate what is going on underwater
5km of driftnet was found containing over 300 marine wildlife
Aims to expose vessels that are violating these regulations
destroys food chain
increasing appearance of dead zones, red tides and oxygen depleted waters
Research predicts that by 2048 all species we fish today could be extinct
in 1992 collapse of the Northern Cod fishery in Newfound, Canada, 40,000 people lost their job
Regional quota limits
EU common fisheries policy
set up in 1970
fish quotas aim to help fish stocks recover is extremely difficult with
43 million people in Europe now at risk of food poverty
and fish being one of the most accessible and main staples of their diet
CFP has been renegotiated in light of Brexit, but
industry only contributes £400 million to the UK economy
so cuts may be made again
Hugh's fish fight video
On the isle of Mann, looking at damage scallop dredgers do to the sea bed
dynamite fishing , now illegal, still used in small islands of the Philippines
800,000 signatures to support the discard ban, implemented across Europe.
Marine conservation zones
Only 0.001% of UK oceans. Less than 1% globally. Aim to cover 10% by 2020.
Humpback wale - successful marine conservation
after 45 years of protection, they number have increased from 1,400 to 21,000 in the North Pacific
2 to 3 dozen whales are normally spotted whale watching today
36 protected area of sea along the states southern coastline
no obvious boundaries or markers, fishermen are meant to use GPS and read notices
Underwater forests are important conservation in the area
Isle of Irran, Scotland
four zones in the marine protected area
fishermen are suspicious of plan to fence of one area - 6 proposed have been made to the Scottish office, none of which have been implemented
Environmental Kuznets curve
this model suggests many countries and international communities are aware of their environmental impact and are acting to reduce it over time
relates to the clark fisher model
Humpback whales and whaling
- successful preserved the species and leas to an decline in the curve today