8. Sovereignty of ocean resources (distribution of major ocean resources…
8. Sovereignty of ocean resources
distribution of major ocean resources
Ocean floor abiotic resources
Iron, copper, zinc and gold
found near ocean floor black smokers
at submarine plate boundaries
SW Pacific Ocean and Mid Atlantic ridge
Salt water penetrates cracks in crust, circulates down the magma chambers and brings elements to the surface.
occurs to convert these minerals into energy. Food webs are created, including tube worms
dense lumps the size of a tennis ball of manganese, iron, silicates and hydroxide.
Chemical reactions occurring in seawater grow them by 2mm every 1 million years
Eastern pacific they
cover the sea floor the size of Europe.
Concentration in eastern pacific linked with hydrothermal activity at the East Pacific Rise.
depths around 1.3km on the flanks of submarine volcanos in
tectonically active regions such as the South Pacific
Found on land in only a few countries, therefore high in value if recovered.
Commercial interest -
deep sea mining
deep seabed mining is equivalent to "standing on top of a New York Skyscraper on a windy day, trying to suck marbles off the street below with a vacuum cleaner and a long hose" - UNCLOS
Deep sea mining expected to begin in 2018.
Estmates $150 trillion worth of gold alone. Companies investing in the mining process have enough money to purchase whole countries.
Although coral only covers 2% of the ocean floor, it harbours 1/4 of the ocean species.
China's slow economic growth and recession reduced the profitability of ocean floor mineral recovery
locals on a plywood boat are making a living from gold diving, earning between $20-$50,000 a day.
Geopolitical tensions and conflict
International Seabed Authority (ISA)
since 1994 ISA mapped the legal rights states have to use ocean floor resources beyond their own EEZ.
Argentina and Canada have large continental shelfs they think should be recognised as their own
ISA allowed the possibility for their EEZ to be extended up to a distance of 350 nautical miles
UN high seas protection
vital to the global marine system
$16 billion in fishing industry
In 2015 a treaty was established to protect important and vulnerable areas of the sea
Nenets, indigenous people
local scale, since 2000 Nenets have been more involved in the decision making and received compensation for damage or displacement.
South China Sea
30% worlds shipping trade passes through
Chinese are island building (9dash line, cabbage strategy)
notes in block 6
Development of satellites to track China's movements
Arctic contains 15% worlds undiscovered oil and 30% undiscovered gas
oil companies scrambling to get leases on drilling
Western Arctic Reserve (WAR) used to be called National Petroleum Reserve (NPR) as it we designated by US congress as an area of strategic oil and gas reserves which the nation could draw to at a time or national emergency such as war.
remote area, small businesses have huge benefits from oil workers increasing production and selling.
Falkland government get 9% of all oil revenue
Argentina claim the land is theirs and that it is illegal exploration. However large investments are stilling made which causes conflict.
Denmark vs UK fishing polices, Brexit (block 6)
Injustices from unequal access
land-lock countries have held the rate. of progression in transporting goods that coastal communities have
trade has to pass through Chile
a strike by Chilean custom officials in 2013 caused a queue of lorries 2 miles long in Bolivia -
interdependence negative consequence
its best hope is becoming an EU style single market but the may take up to a century
involving the Netet people is crucial
for the future oil and gas mining plans - a third of reindeer summer pastures has already been destroyed by construction.
GDP per person is 40% lower than the rest of their maritime neighbours