5. Causes, Consequences and Management of rural-urban migration in…
5. Causes, Consequences and Management of rural-urban migration in developing countries
Push factors in rural areas
Oromo people in Ethiopia
Women earn under 50p a day
Indian company Karuturi own almost 800,000 acres. divided up into small scale areas for individual farmers.
Ethiophias agricultural mister claims theirs no conflict with local communities and no need to provide compensation, but they're being exploited.
snapshot of what is playing out all across Africa - MNC's staking land deals with governments desperate for investment.
worlds largest export for sugar
western demand for ethanol drove up prices
land rush means no locals can grow corn and beans for children
National and international pressure forces government to give land to evicted families
displacement of indigenous people - the nenets, Siberia. Gas and oil threats.
42,000 people of the Yamal Penilsula, lived there for over 1000 years.
Grazing 215,000 reindeer over a tundra
North west Siberia produces 75% Russian roil and 90% of its gas
construction work melted permafrost, increasing marshland in summer and making grassland possible.
north flowing river polluted by chemicals from further south
young people leaving to work for higher pay in oil/gas industries
estimated 20,000 reindeer deaths from construction of new railway
health - SSA
Employment pull factors in urban areas
global supply chain growth
Export processing zones (EPZs)
Asia's three most populated countries - China, India and Indonesia (special economic zones SEZs)
areas within developing countries wheremexporting takes place which attracts MNC investment through low tax rates, removal of tariffs and export duties
By 1950s half of China's GDP was generated by SEZs
MNC's such as Gap and Levi have manufacturing plants in Jakartas. Mass rural to urban migration
Lagos free trade zone
first private free trade zone in Nigeria
integrated hub with active road, rail and sea links
full operation begins in 2022
spread over 805 hectares on land
outsourcing and offshoring in Ghana
Outsourcing in Africa can be up to 70% cheaper that labour locally.
In January 2019 Nestle Ghana signed a partnership aggreement with Ghana standards authority to tackle the problems of mistreatment and poor working conditions.
Coastal SEZ's were crucial to China's economic growth - many of the worlds largest MNC's were quick to establish
mega cities in India: rural-urban migration
only 3 mega cities in 1970, expected rise to 30 in 2020.
number of mega cities in India is expected to double in 2021
New Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai are amount the top positions
50% of slums have electricity indoors and outdoors
61% primary schools
more slum households have tap water than urban households.
1/3 live without basic facilities
most unsafe cities in India for women
largest number of child labourers
Rural consequences and management
rural management (bottom up)
last train home
- largest annual human migration in the world, 200 million people travel back to their rural homes on Chinese new year.
Kenya's M-Pesa mobile service
- launched in 2007, used by 8million people. Revolutionised rural life as fishermen can check market prices and businesses can deposit and withdraw money. The equivalent of half of the countries GDP is sent through the M-Pesa system annually.**
- solar power and mobile internet technology, as well as delivering essential public services such as roads, drinking water, sanitation, electricity and schools
microfinance in Ghana - Sinapi aba trust
- providing people with secure loans for businesses.Operating sicne 1994 and has programmes in all 10 regions of the country. Also promoting women's equal rights (95% of clients nationwide are women).
ageing population structure
estimated in Japan there will be 3 workers for every 2 retirees by 2060.
India - over 100 million elderly dependents
, 70% of which live in rural areas
falling agricultural provision
- youth are leaving the countryside to join workforce, threatening entire countries food security
China - 300 million young migrants have moved to industrial cities. Possible food and security shortages
Urban consequences and management
runaway growth of informal housing as a result of
India mega city
- suggested the number of Mega cities will double in India by 2021. new Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai lie 3rd, 6th and 7th position. Largely due to rual-urban migration. however also as a result of
bottom up urban community development
Rio, Brazil - Rochina shanty housing
- now has electricity, health clinics and McDonalds . formed formal districts connected to the cities infrastructure
Lagos's slums management in Makoko
- Slums on the water. people pay 30p to have rubbish dumped on their doorstep, creating a walkable ground space and community on the water. Estimated new homes for 250,000 people.
top own planning in developing megacities
last train home
- largest annual human migration in the world, 200 million people travel back to their rural homes on Chinese new year by train.
Very little coverages in the western world.
There are 60 smaller Chinese cities with populations greater than 1 million.
By 2025, there will be more than 220 cities with more than 1 million people in each