5. Causes, Consequences and Management of rural-urban migration in…
5. Causes, Consequences and Management of rural-urban migration in developing countries
Push factors in rural areas
Oromo people in Ethiopia
Women earn under 50p a day
Indian company Karuturi own almost 800,000 acres. divided up into small scale areas for individual farmers.
Ethiophias agricultural mister claims theirs no conflict with local communities and no need to provide compensation, but they're being exploited.
snapshot of what is playing out all across Africa - MNC's staking land deals with governments desperate for investment.
worlds largest export for sugar
western demand for ethanol drove up prices
land rush means no locals can grow corn and beans for children
National and international pressure forces government to give land to evicted families
displacement of indigenous people - the nenets, Siberia. Gas and oil threats.
42,000 people of the Yamal Penilsula, lived there for over 1000 years.
Grazing 215,000 reindeer over a tundra
North west Siberia produces 75% Russian roil and 90% of its gas
construction work melted permafrost, increasing marshland in summer and making grassland possible.
north flowing river polluted by chemicals from further south
young people leaving to work for higher pay in oil/gas industries
estimated 20,000 reindeer deaths from construction of new railway
Employment pull factors in urban areas
global supply chain growth
Export processing zones (EPZs)
Asia's three most populated countries - China, India and Indonesia (special economic zones SEZs)
areas within developing countries wheremexporting takes place which attracts MNC investment through low tax rates, removal of tariffs and export duties
By 1950s half of China's GDP was generated by SEZs
MNC's such as Gap and Levi have manufacturing plants in Jakartas. Mass rural to urban migration
Lagos free trade zone
first private free trade zone in Nigeria
integrated hub with active road, rail and sea links
full operation begins in 2022
spread over 805 hectares on land
mega cities in India: rural-urban migration
only 3 mega cities in 1970, expected rise to 30 in 2020.
number of mega cities in India is expected to double in 2021
New Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai are amount the top positions
50% of slums have electricity indoors and outdoors
61% primary schools
more slum households have tap water than urban households.
1/3 live without basic facilities
most unsafe cities in India for women
largest number of child labourers
Consequences in rural and urban areas
top down planning in developing megacities
last train home
- largest annual human migration in the world, 200 million people travel back to their rural homes on Chinese new year.
Kenya's M-Pesa mobile service
- launched in 2007, used by 8million people. Revolutionised rural life as fishermen can check market prices and businesses can deposit and withdraw money.
solar power has been instrumental in many LICs
bottom up urban community development
Lagos's slums management
- Slums on the water. people pay 30p to have rubbish dumped on their doorstep, creating a walkable ground space and community on the water. Estimated new homes for 250,000 people.
Rio, Brazil - Rochina shanty housing
- now has electricity, health clinics and McDonalds . formed formal districts connected to the cities infrastructure
ageing population structure
India - over 100 million elderly dependents
falling agricultural provision
China - 300 million young migrants have moved to industrial cities. Possible food and security shortages