2. Causes of international economic migration (migration helping…
2. Causes of international economic migration
economic push factors
1 million Polishh migrants moved from Poland to the UK in 2004-14.
Out of 350,000 migrants who travel from Mediterranean to Europe in 2015, 40,000 were from Afghanistan.
global periphery (30) - Low income developing countries, general in agriculture.
semi periphery (80) - emerging economies, generally in industrialisation, middle income countries.
global core (80) high average incomes, post-industrial, service economies. half are all very small countries.
primary commodity prices
inconsistent prices -> overproduction of crops -> poor government
Democratic Republic of Congo gained independence, but only 16 citizens had degrees.
TNC's therefore took advantage of their resources due to lack of recognition or real market value.
positive feedback loop created from constant low prices.
resource curse: blood diamonds in sierra leone caused 2 million displaced people
poor access to markets within global systems
EU only protects EU farmers from through import tariffs, so Kenyan farmers are exploited for the flowers they import to the EU.
e.g. African migration to Europe
Eritrea examples of lack of human rights, torture, disappearances, deaths.
Relative Deprivation Theory - there must be sufficient justification when reaching the source for the risk of intervening obstacles
UN report stated 5.5 million people were forcibly displaced in the first 6 months of 2014.
we should be promoting the development that will equip Africa's future workforce with the skills and education that will maximise their contributions at home and in Europe.
Cultural and political push factors
Chinese diaspora -> South East Africa
4% Chinese population are in Indonesia. However they make 75% of the economy.
Largest diaspora in the world
First generation sacrifices so second generation can thrive as entrepreneurs
Indian diaspora -> UK
3% population are Indians
Indian food acted as a gateway for wealth
connection between uk and India dates back to world wars, fighting side by side
Leicester has the most diverse population in the UK
was founded in 1970s, when Indians sew considered good traders but not good researchers. Open gateways to entrepreneurial businesses and education.
Indian diaspora --> Canada
In the past, Indians that succeeded in getting regulations defying the anti-asian lobby in British Columbia had to fight for equality and inclusion
comfortable relationship with Canada in todays society
colonial and commonwealth links
- French coming to escape religious disagreements, Irish labours coming to escape famine, Jews coming to escape racism
new zealand, australis, canada
1950s people from West Indies were highly encouraged
to come and get jobs as after WW2 Britain lacked labourers
many London underground workers from Jamaica, as well as thousands of Indians joining the NHS.
legislations permitting freedom on movement
Eritrea - "worst country for human rights in the world"
country run on political oppression and fear
4000 people try to leave every month, even though it is illegal
second highest asylum seeker rates in the EU (first is Syria)
Schengen Agreement 1995
Freedom of movement for
Migration from south east to Northern cities such as London and Paris
Germany no longer follow the rules of this agreement. Europe are under threat from a flood of migrants -
over 60 per cent of all international migrants live in Asia (80 million) or Europe (78 million).
includes rights of movement and residence for
in the EU
North Korea and Qatar
denied freedom of movement as you must apply for exit visas
Italy's decision in June 2018 not to accept the rescue vessel Aquarius with more than 600 migrants on board attracted widespread criticism, and the issue of border controls for migrants threatened to break up the German coalition government.
migration helping superpowers to gain and maintain their status
important to attract skilled labour
Australia's point based system
Skilled migrants make up 68% of 190,000 places on 2015 programme.
requirements: under 50, tertiary qualifications and English speaking
Americas merits based system
high education and English speaking
In 2010 Hatians began flooding into a rural corner of South Carolina after their natural disaster
priorities are family members of US residents
Japan has the world's 4th largest economy but only has an ethnic minority of 2%. Example of favoured resources and international relations over migration. What about ageing populations and labour shortages however??
African American hip hop culture in America
Birmingham has the highest proportion of under 24s than any other EU cities
migration can increase dependency ratio and increase tax revenue and labour force
India has over 100 million elderly dependents . 70% live in rural areas due to youthful outward migration
japan - there will be 3 workers for every 2 retirees by 2060
- Military superpower
- emerging due to population size, strength of economy
- oil wealth. Lagos is an economic hub and film industry is hitting global global influence
- oil and gas wealth, however severe poverty
international events e.g. 2022 World Cup
China migration superpower
educational connections - Nottingham University
Africa has become chinas second continent - link to diaspora communities
embracing globalisation - worlds top exporter, In 2016 they exported $0.7 trillion worth of goods to the US alone
many young people are so keen to be part of the entrepreneurial life that they make their homes in illegal bunkers, cheaper than anywhere above ground.
development of core, and periphery regions (developed and underdeveloped countries)