7. Carbon stores in different biomes (Tropical rainforest - AMAZON (300…
7. Carbon stores in different biomes
Tropical rainforest - AMAZON
300 billion trees, 150,000 species, stores 1/5 of all carbon on the planets biomass
More than 90 scientists studying for the Nature journal found
CO2 levels have fallen from 2 billion to 1 billion in the last decade.
suns rays are concentrated at this latitude
, little seasonal variation and lots of carbon sequestration.
Temp - high average annual temperatures between
25 and 30 degrees
heavy convectional rainfall (2000-3000mm per year)
, relatively low amounts of carbon is stored in humus layer
40% carbon stored in terrestrial biomass
competition for light and water has created 5 layers of vegetation, with large leaves to maximise their rates of transpiration and growth.
Amazonia, central Africa and parts of Indonesia.
carbon store size
is proportionately smaller that temperate grassland due to constant warm humid conditions which lead to rapid decomposition
in temperate grassland but constant humid conditions in rainforest
lack of rainfall and fires limit
in temperate grasslands, whereas rainforests support broad leaved trees with thick mosses
changing types of plants, diseases, fauna and soil microbes will all alter dynamics of carbon
north of Tropic of Cancer and south of the Tropic of Capricorn
, typically 30-50 degrees from the equator.
central North America, Europe, Asia and South America
Grasses have their growth buds just below the surface and are
well adapted to drought or fire.
Concentrated in summer, weak in winter
= variations in plant growth and biomass storage.
in Ukraine, temperatures range from 22 to -5 degrees.
can be more extreme, ranging from -40 to 38 degrees.
low average rainfall 500m or less.
Large build up of snowing winter northern latitudes.
short perennial grass
Amazon - An area roughly 5 times the size of London was destroyed in 2018
reduces organic input into soil - increases overland flow - soil erosion and loss of carbon store capacity
Amazon - most deforestation occurs in
Mato Grosso and Para, 13.5% rise over last years figures
1/3 of Costa Ricas's cleared rainforest land is used for cattle ranching
. rising demand for food comes from increasing large and affluent global population.
UK forestry commission
- established in 1919, increase sustainable timber supply by locking carbon in timber whenever possible.
Debt for Nature - Exchanged $1 million for setting up a 2.5 million reserve in Bolivia
REDD - UN Reducing Emissions for Deforestation and forest Degregation - incentive for developing countries to conserve rainforest
by receiving benefits such as investments, infrastructure, services.
carbon offsetting -
Individual citizens reduce everyday actions that contribute to climate change
Cargill agribusiness protests
- chaining themselves to stairways to protest again palm oil production
Icelands Christmas advert
- demand for management of palm oil production in Malaysia which has played a major part in critically endangering orang-utans.
positive change can be seen by adding manure, plant debris, composts and biosolids from sewage into agricultural soils.
All are high in organic carbon.
Soil erosion that occurred in the USA "Dust Bowl" in the 1920s-30s , 65 million hectares of over cultivated land was stripped of top soil.