group and team dynamics in sport (2- storming (Group decisions are…
group and team dynamics in sport
‘A collection of people who have a common identity and who interact and communicate with each other to help them achieve a common goal.’
‘The total field of forces which act on members to remain in the group.’
How individuals feel about the group as a whole.
Individual Attraction to the Group
How attracted individuals are to be part of the group.
High dependence on leader for guidance and direction
Group members start to get to know each other.
Little agreement on aims of the team other than those received from the leader.
Individual roles are unclear at this point and strong leader direction is needed.
Group decisions are difficult and team members jostle for position to establish position within the group.
Leaders may receive challenges from team members.
Clearer focus for the team who has a sense of purpose although there will still be some uncertainties.
Cliques are formed and there may be power struggles for leadership.
Goal focus is needed to prevent relationships and emotional factors from being a distraction.
An environment of compromise is needed to enable progress.
Leaders have a more advisory role.
Much more agreement / consensus in the team.
Clearer roles and responsibilities which are generally accepted.
Important decisions increasingly made as a group.
Less important decisions delegated to individuals / smaller sub-teams.
Stronger sense of community and unity.
Friendly and sociable atmosphere within the team.
Respect is shown for leadership and leadership is now more likely to be shared.
More strategies and a clear vision of how to achieve clear aims.
No interference or participation from leader.
Focus on achieving goals and team makes most decisions based on agreed criteria from the leader.
Team members trusted to get on with a job with little interference.
Disagreements are resolved within the team positively and necessary changes are made to process and structure.
Working but personable atmosphere is achieved with little instruction or assistance.
Team members may seek help from leadership with personal and interpersonal issues.
Actual Productivity = Potential Productivity – Losses due to Faulty Processes
steiners model of group effectiveness
Team performance / productivity is decreased by social loafing and a lack of individual motivation.
Learned helplessness – failure attributed to internal stable factors and a lack of self-confidence.
Lack of identifiable roles for team members.
Individual efforts not being recognised / lack of accountability.
Injury and illness of players.
Lack of team cohesion / social cohesion due to disputes or a perception that some team members are not trying.
Co-ordination Losses (Continued)
A lack of communication leading to poor co-ordination and teammates not working together.
The ‘Ringelmann Effect’ – Individual performance decreased because the group size has increased.
Poor leadership which does not motivate the team.
Poor team tactics and strategies.
‘When some individuals in a group lose motivation often due to a loss of identity when placed in a group.’
Preventing Social Loafing
Highlighting individual performance to make all team members feel important.
Giving clear verbal feedback to team members about their performance.
Social support from team mates as well as peer pressure can reduce likelihood of social loafing.
Team members should be considered and selected on how they interact so that co-ordination losses are reduced.
Small sides games and sub-team practices may improve co-ordination and interaction reducing co-ordination losses.