ENERGY AND ITS TRANSFORMATION (Non-conventional electric power plants…
ENERGY AND ITS TRANSFORMATION
Industrial uses: Construction and agriculture , for example.
Household uses:Hot water systems and the operating of electrical appliances, for example
Meaning: They are natural resources from which we obtlain differents forms of energy that can be transformed for a specific use.
By use in each country.
By enviromental impact.
By availability in nature and capacity for regeneration
Electricity power plants
How a electricity powerplant works
The turbine converts mechanical energy into the roating movement of a sanft.
An altenator has a fixed part ,called a stator and a moving part , called a rotor , connected to the turbine shaft.
They use an external source of energy to produce electricitty.
Definition: They are facilities where primary and secondary energy is transformede into energy.
Transport and distribution of electrical energy
Increase the voltage
Decrease the voltage
Distribution to home
Conventional electric power plants
Fossil fuel thermal power plants
At this time water is heated in a boiler by the heat generated from the combustion of a fossil fuel, usualy natural gas or coal.
Combined cycle power plants
Electricity is generated as a a result of two conbined cycle, a cycle that uses air and gas, and a conventional thermal system.
Hydroelectric power plants
This type of power plant uses the potential energy provided by the height of the stored water in a dam converting it into kinetic energy. This energy moves the blades of the turbine.
Depending on the destination of the water hydraulic power plants are divided into two tipes
Gravity-driven hydraulic power plants: Water used follows the course of a river and will not be reused.
Pump-dniven hydraulic power plants; Water descends into a deservoir located at a lower height and then it pumped to a higher reservoir to reuse it.
Nuclear power plants
This type includes a nuclear fission reactor that produced the pressuried steam needed to move the turbine rotor. Uranium is the main fuel used.
Non-conventional electric power plants
Geothermal power plants:
These plants used the heat found at deep levels in the erath .This heat may reach the surface in the form of the steam , gases or hot water.
Biomass thermal power plants
Specific crops , such as sunflowers and sugar beet .
Waste from agri-food industries.
Forestry and agricultural waste
Solar power plants
Photo-thermal power plant :
In this type t,he heated is generated by solar radiation produces steam that is used to move the rotor in a generator.
Photovoltaic power plant
: In this type solar radiation is transformed directly into electricity by panels of photovoltatic cells.
Ocean power plants
The mechanical energy from the waves.
The mechanical energy from the tides.
The energy from the ocean's thermal gradient.
Wind power plants and wind farms
This power plants use the kinetic energy of the wind to move the blades of a rotor at a top of a tower ; this is refered to a wind turbine.
Conventional thermal power plants
They emit large amounts of CO2 which increase the greenhouse effect.
They emite sulphur dioxide and nitrogrn dioxide that cause acid rain which is very hamful to the enviorment
They produce air polution.
The water used in the cooling process is returned to the enviroment while it's still warm , which affects both animal and plant life.
Large hydroelectric power plants
Nuclear thermal power plants
Extraction of natural resources
Final energy use
To reduced the waste produced by thermal power plants
Use coal with a low sulphur conten, to reduce acid rain .
Maintain and increase the size of large forested areas, since they absorb carbon dioxide.
Install special filtres in the pipes at the power plant to capture some of the gas pollutants.
Waste from nuclear power plants is stored in drums with thick sides that do not let the nuclear radiation escape. These are then stored in ocean trenches and underground.
Environmental impact assessment
Fossil fuel thermal power plants
Energy efficiency policies increase efficiency of everyday appliances and devices.
Noticeably reduce the energy we consume.
objective is to produce a large part of our eiectricity through alternative power plants.
Use of renewable energy sources is fundamental.
Essential to reduce the consumption of all forms of energy — without seriously affecting quality of life.
Adoption of more environmentally friendly habits