Energy and its transformations (Non conventional electric power plants…
Energy and its transformations
Theese are natural resources from wich we obtain different form of energy that can be transformed for a specific use
house hold uses
the operating of electrical appliances, heating systems, hot water systems...
the operating of factories and companies, construction, agriculture and so on
we clasify them into several ways
By use in each country
By availability in nature and capacity for regeneration
By enviromental impact
Clean or non-polluting
it can be easily transformed into other forms of energy , such as light and heat
it can be transported long distances inexpensively and with little energy beiing lost
Electric power plants
The turbine converts mechanical energy into the rotating movement of a shaft
An alterator has a fixed part, called a stator, and a moving part, called a rotor , connected to a turbine shaft
Transport and distribution of electrical energy
Transport and distribution
Energy can be stored , therefore it must be transported to consumption centres. This transport involves several.
Conventional electric power plants
Nuclear power plants
This type of plant includes a nuclear fission reactor that produces the pressurised steam needed to move the turbine rotor
Fossil power plants
At this type of power plant, water is heated in a boiler by the heat generated by the combustion of a fossil fuel , usually natural gas or coal.
Combined cycle power plant
Electricity is generated as a result of two combined cycles, a cycle that uses air and gas , and a conventional thermal cycle. During the first cycle , a gas turbine is used that includes a compressor.
Air is mixed with the gas and is burnt, wich generates electricity in the turbine-alternator system. The combustion gases are transported to a boiler, where they transfer their energy to the water during the second cycle.
Hydroelectric power plants
This type of power plant uses the potential energy provided by the height of the stored water in a dam, converting it into kinetic energy. This energy moves the blades of the turbine. Depending on the destination of the water it can be two things: Gravity- driven hydraulic power plants and Pump-driven hydraulic power plants
Non conventional electric power plants
Wind power plants and wind farms
This power plants use kinetic energy of the wind to move the blades of a rotor at the top of a tower; this is refered to as the wind turbine
Wind farms re a clean form of generating electicity. However , they can only be installed in places with appropriate wind condition
Solar power plants
In these power plants, solar radiations is transformed directly into electricity by panels of photovoltaic cells
Photo - thermal
In this type of power plant, the heat generated by solar radiation produces steam that is used to move the rotor in the generator.
To do this , they use special mirrors, called heliostats,that reflect sunligth and concentrate it at one point, where it reaches a high temperature
Geothermal power plants
These plants use the heat found at deep levels in the earth. Geothermal energy may be used directly and indirectly.
Biomass thermal power plants
Biomass consists of all organic compounds that are produced through natural processes. They may come from the following sources: - Forestry and agriculture; -Specific crops ; -Waste from agri- food industies.
Ocean power plants
These plants use the energy from the seas and the oceans
enviromental impact assesment
As part of a technical project, it's mandatory to carry out an enviromental impact assesment to find out what changes it would provoke in the enviroment
Extraction of natural resources
The exploration of a fossil fuels and nuclear power means the depletion of resources, wich makes it necesary to find new ones
Oil is tramported by means of oil pipelines and oil tankers
large hydroelectric power plants require water resvoirs covering large areas
Final energy use
The fuels that we use in vehicles and heating systems that emit gases and particles similar to those generated by conventional thermal power plants.
To reduce the waste generated by thermal power plants, as well as their effects, several measures can be taken.
Wasted from nuclear power plants is stored in drums with thick sides that do not let the nuclear radiation escape. These are then stored in drums with thick sides that do not let the nuclear radiation escape. Thene they are stored in ocean trenches and underground.
There is a great range of solutions that we can do:
-We can use less fuel consumption
-We can use more the bycicles
-We can change our consumption habits