How good a king was Baldwin IV? (Rise of Muslim unity under Saladin…
How good a king was Baldwin IV?
Kings and great nobles incomes= not enough to meet cost of defending Outremer
Lack of manpower- means need to pay for mercenaries
starting to build castles as a defence - e.g at Jacobs Ford- very expensive to build, maintain and man
SOLUTION= sell castles off to Templars and Hospitallers.- RAISED HUGE funds in west which was sent east. Nobels also sent lands to military orders- the profits that were made were sent east. In 1187- all major castles in Galilee were run by military orders except Tiberias
OTHER SOLUTION- 1167- those who didnt help in Egypt had to pay 10% tax. 1183 census= national war tax raised of 1%
Truces and Alliances with Muslims
1180- 1182- Truce with Saladin- saved money and manpower
No help from the west
westerns see political state in Jerusalem as corrupt caused by betrayal in 2nd crusade.
westerners see Baldwin IV's leprosy as being a punishment from God.
ITALIAN SEA POWERS- in 1182- pisan fleet sent
MILITRAY ORDERS- helped with castles (see revenue) . In 1180- Baldwin IV sent Templars to West to recruit for a crusade- limited response.
ALLIANCE WITH BYZANTINE EMPEROR Manuel - Manuel provided troops for the Egyptian campaign 1177. Continued until 1180 but ends with Manuel's death. By 1184- anti- Frankish emperor on the throne.
Leprosy and minor- means regular regencies, 2 sisters = 2 factions- DOVES (EASTERNS, RAYMOND OF TRIPOLI) VS HAWKS (WESTERNERS LED BY GUY)
In 1180- Baldwin IV marries Sybil to Guy- which neutralises threat by creating a faction to counter the eastern nobles - helped Baldwin retain throne as balanced regents
baldwin uses balanced regents- 1174- 6= Raymond then Reynald and then 1183- Guy.- after shadowing Saladin's army and not actually attacking him- guy is sacjked by baldwin because raymind accuses guy of being a coward . 1185- Raymond.
By 1180- Raymond succeeds in getting Isabella to marry Humphrey of Toron, Easterner
Factionalism between Easterners and westerners - 1177 joint attack on Egypt planned with Phil of Flanders - fails as cannot agree with E Franks over future of Egypt
Lack of feudal control over Antioch - Reynald de Chatillon: Antioch= reduced to narrow strip - reynald tries to expand landholdings and wealth- 1182- raids the red sea, attacking Muslim towns, 1182- 3 attacks Hajj pilgrim traffic. causes Saladin to invade 1183, 1187
LACK OF LEGITIMATE MALE HEIRS- infertile, minor, no brothers
Rise of Muslim unity under Saladin
Saladin has Egypt, its troops and its gold 1169
Saladin has Damascus, its troops and its religious significance from 1175
1182-3- Saladin takes Aleppo- was the truce a mistake?
COUNTER ARGUMENT -
1175-6 1175-6 saladin campaigns vs Aleppo, so not attacking franks, left turan shah in charge of Damascus -
1180- 2 truce with saladin.
1177- battle of montisgisard - saladin defeated by Baldwin IV
1182- battle of LE FORBELET - Saladin defeated
1179 Jacobs Ford fell to saladin
Autumn 1183- Saladin brings huge army to borders of Outremer, massively outnumbers franks. Guy advised by Raymond to shadow saladins amry, emptying every city in Outremer of knights in order to create army big enough- saladin withdraws after a month
1185- Saladin besisges Kerek and is seen off
Battle of Hattin 1185- 1187
Lack of Manpower
marrying Sybil to guy brings in manpower from west .
missed opportunity to marry Isabella to a westerner, would have increased manpower
Did have some help from byz alliance and west -e.g phil of Flanders 1177 and guy 11178