The Self (making sense of ourselves) (Self Enhancement - how to reach…
The Self (making sense of ourselves)
I - acting subject (Agent)
Me - object of knowledge (beliefs) =
"the cognitive representation of a set of beliefs about one's characteristics":
containing specific events & generalizations
derived from past experience
function is to give coherence and meaning to ones experience
cognitive representation as a concept (schema)
Self-Concept as an Associative Network
Sources of Self-Concept:
Self-Perception Theory (Bem) "I got an A in chemistry, I guess I am good at it"
Diagnostic value of self- observations
intrinsically motivated behavior = highly diagnostic
extrinsically motivated behavior = little diagnostig
2) Imagination (Remembering) of own Behavior
3) Introspection, Thoughts and Feelings
The looking Glass self (Cooley)
"other peoples reactions to ourselves serve as mirror..."
Social Comparison Theory (Festinger)
"we seek social comparisons, with similar (relevant) others", "preferring distinguishing info"
"significant others as the private audience and comparison standard"
"incorporation of social categories and group memberships into our self-concept"
(In)dependence as self-schema
"the tendency to process & remember self-related information better than other info"
Coherent Self Concept
Self Construction (on the spot) - working self-concept (only currently relevant subset of knowledge activated)
Me - object of evaluation (feelings) =
"an Individuals positive or negative evaluation (emotional concept) of itsself"
Trait: "general and overall evaluation, fairly stable over life
State: "variable, temporary & contextual fluctuation"
The Nameletter Effect (Pelham)
The "better than average" effect or superiority bias
organizes self-reliant info
directs attention to relevant info
guides self expression
guides choice of relationship partners
guides self-regulation: situation appraisals and corresponding emotional experiences
motivated to demonstrate self concept through own actions and seek fitting situations/relationships
serves: -self assessment motive & self-verification motive
Symbolic Self Completition Theory (Gollwitzer)
Multiple Selves (Markus & Wurf)
- how to reach positive self-picture
1) Actor-Observer-Bias - Self serving Attributions
2) Situation selection (approach success, avoid failure)
3) self serving information processing
info searching, that support desired conclusions
re-asses self-threatening implications of feedback
Process positive info with higher weight when integrating info
4) Biased Social Comparisons (self-evaluation maintenance theory (Tesser))
S.E. & Attribution Styles (Weiner)
S.E. & The Genius Effect
"the person who outperformes me, must be a genius"
S.E. & Self Presentation
Integration, Self Promotion, Exemplification, Intimidation, Supplication, Self-Handicapping, Self-transformation
Implicit Association Test (IAT)
Self - Awareness Theory
subjective vs. objective self awareness
Actual Self. Ideal Self. Ought Self