Motives for participants of the First Crusade (Religious Devotion…
Motives for participants of the First Crusade
Economic - trade, booty, land
Runciman- colonial enterprise- continuation of the normans fighting the byzantines- saw crusade as an opportunity to expand on land- due to increase in knightly younger sons, land shortages and war in Europe
BUT- was writing at the time when the British empire was breaking apart- made a lot of assumptions- assumed that the same thing would happen in crusade- as the british empire invaded Palestine in ww1.
Had narrow scope- relied too heavily onn the crusade leaders, not the 60000 other participants. e.g relied on the gesta Francorum- bohemond I's personal historian account- he was in it to gain land
Riley Smith used wider scope of sources- looked knightly class- found that most knights and nobles weren't just landless noble sons- most knights had to mortgage land or sell land - so already had land- why did they need more?-many knights went home after crusade- didnt stay out there- clauses in charters only came into use if pps died
poor people- had nothing to lose- starvation etc , bad harvests, population increase e- poverty caused by feudal anarchy , middle east= few Catholics- if won then likely to get promotion of large land space
EXAMPLES OF CRUSADERS THAT WERE ECONOMICALLY MOTIVATED / ONES THAT COULD COUNTER IT
BALDWIN OF BOULOGNE- Had no title or land, quite job- low income, took his wife and children on crusade- shows has interest in staying out there, sold land to buy armour, godfrey (his brother) financed crusade, he broke off from main army in 1096 to take Armenian cities and took tarsus from Tancred and more land from him in 1097 and took Edessa in 1098- shows he wants land
ROBERT OF NORMANDY- hoped to inherit land from father but was unsuccessful- he was at war immediately with brother William rufus- he kept invading his land of Normandy an =d rufus was successful. so Robert suffered financially had to borrow money and mortgage land to finance crusade. in 1100 returned home to defend lands from brothers
BOHEMOND GUISCARD- his brother Roger Borsa inherited most of father's Southern Italian states- so perhaps wanted more land due to feudal anarchy. at Constantinople- refuses to swear oath to alexius- and also refuses to give Antioch to byz in 1098- stays there instead of going to Jerusalem- shows not really religiously motivated- wants more land
HUGH OF VERMENDOIS- even though his brother was king of France- still didnt have much money, land or power and had small army. in 1098- he refused to rejoin the pilgrims at Antioch- returned to france- so could say that he wasn't that ecomomically motivated- as didnt stay out there. he was threatened to be excommunicated by pope and joined the 1101 minor crusade
GODFREY- already had land- lower Lorraine in holy roman empire- he got people to govern it in his absence. he has substantial resources- so could argue he wasn't economically motivated- as had loads of land. sold properties and had land disputes to finance crusaders. but he refused to swear oath to alexius and had full scale looting ttack on constaninople as alexius cut off food supplies- shows he is wrecklesss- might want more land?
STEPHEM OF BLOIS- went home in 1098- gave up- told alexious not to bother aswell- shows that he doesnt really carae about gaining land?
RAYMOND OF TOULOUS- he had loads of land- 13 countries in south of France -before he went gave all property to son and took his wife with him and vowed that he would spend the rest of his life in the holy land- religious reasons or economic? He also refused to swear oath to alexius in 1097- and even just took diluted form- shows he wants to keep own land possibly. However, he advised bohemond to return Antioch to alexius 1098. then he besieged triploi to limit Bohemond's power In Antioch. turned down king of Jerusalem
Importance of relics
people wanted to go visit the Holy Sepulchre
Christians not trusting non- Christians- rise in anti Semitism- Jews seen as Muslim 'agents'
Increase in visions and lay preachers- belief that pope will support you if you are one
pope offering full remission of sins if complete crusade or die on it - first time peasants are offered thus - before only rich nobleman could afford indulgences
main goal= to reduce time in purgatory and go straight to heaven-
EXAMPLES OF CRUSADERS WHO WERE RELIGIOUSLY MOTIVATED/ TO COUNTER IT
GODFREY OF LORRAINE= STRONG SUPPORTER OF PAPACY
BOHEMOND STAYED AT ANTIOCH DIDNT GO TO HELP AT JERUSLAEM- SHOWS NOT MOTIAVTED BY RELIGIOUS ZEAL
STEPHEN OF BLOIS- HE WENT HOME IN 1098- AND TOLD ALEXIUS NOT TO BOTHER HELPING CRUSADERS- NOT RELIGIUSLY MOTIVATED?
ADHEAMR- BISHOP- CALLED ON CRUSADE TO BRING RELIOGUS PRESENCE- HE WENT ON PILGRIMAGE 9 YEARS BEFORE CRUSADE
RAYMOND- HE WAS OFFERED THE TITLE OF KING OF JERUSALEM BUT REFUSED FOR RELIGIOUS REASONS. vowed to spend rest of life in holy land- is that for religious reason ?
crusade= good for knights- can fulfil their duty as knight- so killing and fighting people whilst also having full remsiion of sins - so didnt have to worry about their duty as knight jeprodsing their soul in purgatory
EXAMPLES OF CRUSADERS MOTIAVTED BY SANCTIFIED VIOLNCE
TANCRED DE HAUTEVILLE- he was in dilemma because church was telling him to act peacefully towards others- but duty as knight needed him to kill others and fight-s so crusade- solved this dilemma for him by offering full remission of sins
Feudal and Social Obligations
peer pressure- people crusaded either because they were ordered to or because their family went. kin groups crusaded together- those with a family history in pilgrimage - more likely to crusade
EXAMPLES OF CRUSADERS WHO WERE MOTIVATED BY FEUDAL AND SOCIAL OBLIGATIONS
BOHEMOND GUISCARD = ruler of Southern Italy- his family had gained land from Italy by attacking the Byzantines - so didnt like alexius or Byzantines. bohemond= ally to pope so pope owed him a favour.
HUGH OF VERMENDOIS= he fought the Muslims in Spain and saw the first crusade as extension of this battle
STEPHEN OF BLOIS- his wife adele persuaded him to go on crusade with Robert of Normandy's army