Unit Four: 1800-1848 (Key Concept 1: (The United States developed the…
Unit Four: 1800-1848
Key Concept 1:
The United States developed the world's first modern mass democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation's democratic ideals and to reform its institutions to math them. [Notes on The rise of political parties and the era of Jefferson can be found
(D) Many white Americans in the South asserted their regional identity through pride in the institution of slavery, insisting that the federal government should defend that institution.
(A) As various constituencies and interests groups coalesced and defined their agendas, various political parties, most significantly the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans in the 1790s and the Democrats and Whigs in the 1830s, were created or transformed to reflect and/or promote those agendas.
(C) With the acceleration of a national and international market economy, Americans debated the scope of government's role in the economy, while diverging economic systems meant that regional political and economic loyalties often continued to overshadow national concerns.
(B) Supreme Court decisions sought to assert federal power over state laws and the primacy of the judiciary in determining the meaning of the Constitution
Key Concept 7:
U.S. interest in increasing foreign trade, expanding its national borders, and isolating itself from European conflicts shaped the nation's foreign policy and spurred government and private initiatives. [Note on 1800-1848 politics and regional interests can be found
(A) Following the Louisiana Purchase, the drive to acquire, survey, and open up new lands and markets led Americans into numerous economic, diplomatic, and military initiatives in the Western Hemisphere and Asia
(E) Whites living on the frontier tended to champion expansion efforts, while resistance by American Indians led to a series of wars and federal efforts to control American Indian populations
(B) The U.S. sought dominance over the North American continent through a variety of means, including military actions, judicial decisions, and diplomatic efforts.
(D) Federal government attempts to assert authority over the states brought resistance from state governments in the North and the South at different times.
(C) With expanding borders came public debates about whether to expand and how to define and use the new territories.
Key Concept 5:
Regional economic specialization, especially the demands of cultivating southern cotton, shaped settlement patterns and the national and international economy
(A) Southern cotton furnished the raw material for manufacturing in the Northeast, while the growth in cotton production and trade promoted the development of national economic ties, shaped the international economy, and fueled the internal slave trade.
(C) Efforts to exploit the nation's natural resources led to government efforts to promote free and forced migration of various American peoples across the continent as well as to competing ideas about defining and managing labor systems, geographical boundaries, and natural resources.
(B) Despite some governmental and private efforts to create a unified national economy, most notably the American System, the shift to market production linked the North and the Midwest more closely than either was linked to the South.
Key Concept 4:
Developments in technology, agriculture, and commerce precipitated profound changes in U.S settlement patterns, regional identities, gender and family relations, political power, and distribution of consumer goods. [Notes on Market Revolution can be found
] [Notes on Jackson and federal power can be found
(B) Increasing numbers of Americans, especially women in factories and low-skilled male workers, no longer relied on semi-subsistence farming but made their living by producing goods for distant markets, even as some urban entrepreneurs went into finance rather than manufacturing.
(A) Innovation including textile machinery, steam engines, interchangeable parts, canals, railroads, and the telegraph, as well as agricultural inventions, both extended markets and brought efficiency to production for those markets.
Key Concept 8:
The American acquisition of lands in the West gave rise to a contest over the extension of slavery to the western territories as well as a series of attempts at national compromise
(B) As over-cultivation depleted arable land in the Southeast, slaveholders relocated their agricultural enterprises to the new Southwest, increasing sectional tensions over the institution of slavery and sparking a broad-scale debate about how to set national goals, priorities, and strategies.
(A) The 1820 Missouri Compromise created a truce over the issue of slavery that gradually broke down as confrontations over slavery became increasingly bitter.
Key Concept 6:
The economic changes caused by the market revolution had significant effects on migration patterns, gender and family relations, and the distribution of political power.
(A) With opening of canals and new roads into the western territories, native-born white citizens relocated westward, relying on new community systems to replace their old family and local relationships.
(E) Regional interests continued to trump national concerns as the basis for many political leader' positions on economic issues including slavery, the national bank, tariffs, and internal improvements.
(B) Migrants from Europe increased the population in the East and Midwest, forging strong bonds of interdependence between the Northeast and the Old Northwest.
(D) The market revolutions helped to widen the gap between rich and poor, shaped emerging middle and working classes, and caused an increasing separation between home and workplace, which led to dramatic transformations in gender and in family roles and expectations.
(C) The South remained politically, culturally, and ideologically distinct from the other sections while continuing to rely on its exports to Europe for economic growth
Key Concept 3:
While Americans celebrated their nation's progress toward a unified new national culture that blended Old World forms with New World ideas, various groups of the nation's inhabitants developed distinctive cultures of their own. [Notes on developing an American culture can be found
(A) A new national culture emerged, with various Americans creating art, architecture, and literature that combined Europeans forms with local and regional cultural sensibilities.
(C) Enslaved and free African Americans, isolated at the bottom of the social hierarchy, created communities and strategies to protect their dignity and their family structures, even as some launched abolitionist and reform movements aimed at changing their status.
(B) Various groups of American Indians, women, and religious followers developed cultures reflecting their interests and experiences, as did regional groups and an emerging urban middle class [Notes on the Second Great Awakening can be found
Key Concept 2:
Concurrent with an increasing international exchange of goods and ideas, larger numbers of Americans began struggling with how to match democratic political ideals to political institutions and social realities.
(A) The Second Great Awakening, liberal social ideas from abroad, and Romantic beliefs in human perfectibility fostered the rise of voluntary organizations to promote religious and secular reforms, including abolition and women's rights
(C) Resistance to initiatives for democracy and inclusion included pro slavery arguments, rising xenophobia, anti-black sentiments in political and popular culture, and restrictive anti-Indian policies.
(B) Despite the outlawing of the international slave trade, the rise in the number of free African Americans in both the North and South, and widespread discussion of various emancipation plans, the U.S and many state governments continued to restrict African Americans' citizenship possibilities.