The ORIGINS OF PSYCHOLOGY AND THE Behaviourist Approach (Assumptions …
The ORIGINS OF PSYCHOLOGY AND THE Behaviourist Approach
FOR CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
PAVLOV- realised that when he presented the dog with food the dog salivated- so every time pavlov rang the bell food would be present and the dog would salivate- so pavlov repeated this and in the end the dog salivated every time the bell was rand even though there was no food- as he learnt to associate saliva with the sound of the bell
(ucs)Food- Saliva(unr). / Food (ucs)+ Bell (NS)- Saliva (ucr)/ Bell (cs)- Saliva (cr)
WATSON AND RAYNER - LITTLE ALBERT- little albert was presented with different animals- like a rat, etc which he didnt really repond to, but when a loud was presented- albert became very distressed. so everytime albert was presented with teh rat- the sound was played and this was repeated- soon albert began to associate the rat with distress - so he was conditioned to have a phobia of rats even when the rining sound wasn't present.
(ucs)Ringing sound - Distress (ucr)/ Ringing sound (ucs)+ rat (ns) - Distress./ Rat(cs)- Distress (cr)
FOR OPERANT CONDITIONING
SKINNER- was influenced by Thorndike- the 'skinners box for rats' contained a lever which released food for the rat- which acted as positive reinforcement and the floor could also be electrified which acted as a punishment for the rat and then actions to avoid the shocks would be negative reinforcement- the rat soon learnt all of this. - rat would keep pressing lever (continuous reinforcement)
THORNDIKE- Law of Effect- where any action that has a pleasurable outcome will be repeated again in similar circumstances. - observed how cats managed to escape a puzzle box- the first time they were put into the box it took them time to escape, but as they learnt they could escape by pulling the latch they did so straight away In the other times. This was because pulling the latch was positively reinforced as it led them to escaping. There was also a fish within sight outside the box which acted as a further reward when they were out.
EVALUATION OF THE BEHAVIOURIST APPRAOCH
Behaviourists use scientific methods to study human behaviour- seen to be credibility in their methods
PRACTICAL APPLICATION- their ideas are used widely to help change behaviour which is seen to be negative and to encourage positive behaviour- like modification strategies used in prisons and schools.
could be argued that it is more ethical to test animals in this way than testing humans
only studies observable behaviour which means it is easy to test- unlike the cognitive approach in which cognitive psychologists study peoples thought processes which is difficult to test.
They dont consider the influence of thought and cognitive processes as they are not observable
they dont argue that we have control over our own behaviour which is DETERMINISTIC.
any spontaneous behaviour is not easily explained by classical and operant conditioning.
use animal research- it is argued that this isn't appropriate due to the differences in human and animal behaviour
can be seen as REDUCTIONSIT- as it assumes that our behaviour is simply a product of stimulus response behaviour
COMPARE TO OTHER APPROACHES
both are deterministic and imply that humans dont really have free will- as we dont have control over our own behaviour
Both are reductionist- explain behaviour in simple terms- e.g behavioursti ignores thought and cognitive processes that are involved as well and the biological simplifies human behaviour to genes and hormones
both use scientific methods to study behaviour- so can be credited for that
The behaviourist approach sees behaviour as learned- so strong supporters of nurture in the nature vs nurture debate. Whereas, the Biological Approach supports the nature side of the nature vs nurture debate as it suggests that our behaviour is because of our biology
the biological uses brain scans and twin studies whereas the behaviourist approach uses animal research and lab experiments
COGNITIVE APPROACH-whilst the behaviourist approach only studies observal behaviour - as it doesnt think one can study thought processes, whereas the cognitive approach says that thought processes explain behaviour and that they should be and can be studied scientifically. It criticises the behaviourist approach as it says that stimulus and response is appropriate but only if the thought processes that occur between the stimulus and response are acknowledged
Only behaviour we can observe should be studied. whereas thought processes are subjective and difficult to test.
We are born on a blank slate, so there is no genetic influence on behaviour.
Behaviour is learned from experience.
It is valid to study the behaviour of animals as they share the same principles of learning
Definitions and Concepts
We learn through association
CONDITIONED STIMULUS (cs)
UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (ucs)
NEUTRAL STIMULUS (ns)
UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (ucr)
CONDITIONED RESPONSE (cr)
STIMULUS GENRALISATION- if a stimulus had characteristics close to the conditioned stimulus then the association would also be made to that new stimulus -.
pavlov found when he varied the bell pitch and tone the dogs will still salivate. also little albert also frightened by other small furry animals
STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION- when a stimulus is not associated with a conditioned response as it is too different from the original stimulus-
e.g albert wouldn't associate a dog with distress.
TIME CONTIGUITY (TEMPORARL CONTIGNUITY)- pavlov found that the association only occurs if the unconditioned stimulus and neutral stimulus are presented at the same time, or around the same time as eachother.
learning by consequence
PUNISHMENT- applying an unpleasant stimulus after a response or removing a rewarding stimulus which weakens a response rather than increase it
NEGATIVE REINFORCMENT- when negative consequences are removed/ avoided which means that behaviour is more likely to reoccur.
POSITIVE REINFORCEMNET- rewarded for our behaviour- positive consequences means behaviour is more likely to reoccur
Types of Reinforcement schedules
CONTINOUOUS REINFORCEMENT- where every single response is reinforced- response rate= low but steady and very low resistance to extinction- e.g receiving a high grade after every exam.
FIXED INTERVAL- reinforcement given after a fixed number of time- if the response if the response occurs at least once during that time e.g every 30 seconds- e.g being paid regularly- every week/ month - response rate= quite low- speeds up when next reinforcement is near and a pause after each reinforcement. Extinction occurs quite quickly.
VARIABLE INTERVAL- where the reinforcement is given after a an unpredictable amount of time each trial e.g on average it may be given every 30 seconds but then on another trial it may be different. Response rate= high and stable over long periods of time- increases as it has been fairly long since the last reinforcement. extinction rate= slowly and gradually.
FIXED RATIO= when a reinforcement is given for a fixed number of responses- e.g one reinforcement very 10 responses. Response rate= pause after each reinforcement and then a very high rate of response leading up to next reinforcement.
VARIABLE RATIO= when a reinforcement is given after an unpredictable number of responses e.g on average it is given every 10 responses but the number varies from trial to trial. Response rate= very high and very steady. Resistance to extinction= very high. this schedule is the BEST out of all of them
ORIGINS OF PSYCHOLOGY
Wundt - occured in Germany- in 1875 Wundt established the first psychology laboratory- he worked at Leipzig University and had a room dedicated to conducting psychological experiments. He found the Institute of Experimental Psychology in 1879.
Wundt 'the father of modern psychology' came up with this term and it is the examination of one's own thought processes . people were trained to report in detail on their inner experiences when presented with a stimulus such as a problem to solve or something to be memorised.
Wundt found that these reports on introspection couldnt be replicated and so were unreliable, as it was too subjective (just based on one persons opinion)
THE EMERGENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE-
many psychologists apply the scientific method to their work to test their hypotheses. However, some psychologists are not that focused much on the scientific part- they argue that there will always be an element of subjectivity.
what is meant by approaches?
the differing ways of seeing and testing behaviour