article 32 - consultants's credibility (roles, functions and…
article 32 - consultants's credibility
roles, functions and characteristics of Consulting
applying specialized expertise
consultant functions (by Kurpuis 1978)
- The expert consultant is engaged for direct provision of services or products
- the consultant gathers information, makes a diagnosis, and directs the consultee on how to treat the condition;
- The consultant works in partnership with consultees to define, design, and implement a process of change
- The consultant identifies the need for change, gathers informa- tion, and presents observations as a way of focusing the consultation (most often used by internal consultants).
a study by
(2000) mentioned 5 categories as the role and functions as follow
- specialized approaches that the consultant applies to the organization’s situation and then leaves.
- installation of the product at the client’s site and training con- sultee’s staff how to use it.
- the most common consulting service; may include research capability, industry knowledge, functional proficiency, or information. The consultant’s role could be leading or facilitating a task, supplying expertise as input to the process, or being a contributing team member
- additional staff time to fulfill the consultee organization’s need for added capacity without need for layoffs and other unpleasant personnel actions when demand declines
+ two additional dimensions:
1) providing an objective view- point or perspective 2) reducing the risk of change by recommending tested methods and thereby diminishing the costs of trial-and- error learning in the organization
this is a triadic relationshi
p: consultant, consultee, and the client
consultant has a little or no formal authority in the work situation
the consultant must enter an ambiguous power-control situation, simultaneously develop empathy for and maintain objective distance from the key players, provide the required services, and exit when the consultation is concluded
ambiguity and insecurity
is in this situation and also consultant bring the
among client's members --> both are un pressure then there is a
--> consultant need to be able to build a good relationship with managers and employees in the client org ...
is the key part of credibility
consulting relationships are dynamic, interactive, even dialectical in nature
reputation, credibility, competency and effectiveness
through consistency in two TRUE manners
, do what u said u will do //
not do what u said u wont do)
(not discharging a stated intention) and
(taking an action that the entity previously stated it would not take)
credibility - the major determinant of Repuration
Credibility is a current estimate of the trustworthiness of stated intentions pertain- ing to the next transaction (Herbig & Milewicz, 1995).
credibility is dependent on the most recent transaction and reputation
Credibility can also be framed in terms of the capacity to influence a target within an organization, usually key decision makers or top management.
competency and effectiveness
: consultant’s understanding of his or her own limitations, which depends in turn on methods for evaluating skills and abilities against the requirements of each project.
Bush and Gibbs 1990
: diagnostic skills // personal influence// professional self- image // problem solving // results orientation // tactical flexibility // strength of self-concept // use of theory // development of common understanding
factors impacts Credibility
Interpersonal skills and abilities
since consultant does not have authonomy and authority in the org, they need to build a good relationship in order to be able to implement their solutions and the employess of the clinet company follow them
- pay close attention to client's needs and concerns
key component of
are 1) demonstrating empathy 2) genuineness 3) active listening 4) use of clear and straightforward language 5)asking members of the clinet's og key Qs (for input) ---
Knoff and Hines 1995
trust and trustworthiness is the central element of Credibility
build a foundation for long term relationship between consultant and client ------->
is the byproduct of commitment and trust
Maister Green Galford (2000) ,
4 stages of TRUST in consultant client relationship
The association between trust and credibility depends in part on the nature and duration of the consulting relationship
The basis of the relation- ship shifts from expertise at the earlier levels to trust at later levels.
At the third and fourth trust levels, there is open exchange of information because the parties do not feel the need to expend energy to protect them- selves, and better decisions result.
hypthesize 10 stages which stage 6 - 9 of shifts in cognitive, attention and interpretation... he showed higher developmental level
. Ability to perceive issues and events from multiple perspectives.
. Capacity for self-reflection and self-criticism. Actions and relationships are interpreted in terms of motives. Individual differences are respected. Self generates personal standards. Failure to perceive internal subjectivity and shortcomings.
Interpersonal relationships are more important than achievements and abilities. Can tolerate paradox.
Inner conflicts are acknowledged and managed. Commitments can be made despite ambiguity. Uniqueness of the self and others and mutual interdependence are appreciated.
Ozley and Armenakis (2000) found
honesty, competence, vision, and inspiration
as components of credibility.
Personal /professional Ethics
is so important
Background and skills
Conceptual, technical, communication, integrative and problem solving
skills are components of
Turner (1982) described
eight hierarchically related fundamental objectives of consulting, each of which relates to a skill set.
Consultant Effectiveness Scale
(Knoff & Hines, 1995)./// It is composed of 52 items in
four factor groupings:
he strongest predictors of Problem-Solving Skills are being a
good facilitator, active listening, effective at establishing rapport, good at problem-solving, and astute observation
Consultation process and application skills
willingness to get involved, evaluation and focus of ideas, active orientation, fol- low through, and identification of clear goals
behaviors such as
showing respect for consultee, trustworthiness, approach ability, positive attitude
ethical and professional practice skills
maintains confidentiality, trustworthy, and clear sense of identity
the two variables that explained the greatest variance in credibility were
that modeling their recom- mendations increased their professional marketability, and
their personal sense of competence as a role model
. These findings link the consultant’s internal attitudes and beliefs to credibility. (Benz Scott and Black (1999))
Credibility depends on multiple dimension of consistency
1) between the consultant’s stated commitments and subsequent actions, 2) between demands of the situation and the consultant’s technical competencies, and 3 between the consultant’s internal values and external behavior.