Winston James (1993)
Winston james suggests that the experience of racism unified the culture and identity of Africans-Caribbeans in the UK. Black people from the Caribbean had cultural differences based on their island of origin, and my also have been divided based on the darkness of their skin, a hierarchy of colour imposed on colonialism. However, in the UK, the common experience of racism had the effect of drawing African-Caribbeans together. A shared oppositional culture grew, organised around the label ‘black’, as a resistance of racism.