Theme8. CEREBRAL CORTEX (i.Phylogenetic division of the cortex. The…
Theme8. CEREBRAL CORTEX
i.Phylogenetic division of the cortex. The Brodmannareas.
Isocortex (6 layers)
External & internal granular layers
Granular cells predominate in layers II (small pyramidal cells) andI V (polymorphic cells).
Layer I (molecular layer)
contains mainly axons, dendrites of neurons located in deeper layers and horizontal cells.
External & internal pyramidal layers.
Pyramidal cells predominate in layers III (mediumsize) and V (largesize).
Layer VI (multiform layer)
Axons of pyramidal cells that project throughout the central nervous system (CNS).
Is primarily are ceiving area for nonspecific afferent fibers
Granule cell layers (layer II and especially layer IV)
Are basically receiving areas for inputs from the thalamus and other regions of cortex.
Received at almost any layer of cortex can result in excitation of cells located in other cell layers.
iii.Functional organization: Motor, Sensory and Association cortices.
Sensory (unimodal) association areas
Higher order (multimodal) association cortex
MAJOR MULTIMODAL ASSOCIATION AREAS
Temporal association cortex
Identifying the nature of such stimuli.
Frontal association cortex
Planning appropriate behavioral responses to the stimuli.
Parietal association cortex
Attending to complex stimuli in the external and internal environment.
ii.Histology: Layered and Columnar organization of the cortex.
The histological appearance of the cerebral cortex
Primary motor cortex
Primary sensory cortex
iv.Cerebral lateralization: mapping language processing and speech.
Left hemisphere specialized for language and speech and major problem-solving capacities.
Right hemisphere specialized for tasks such as facial recognition and attentional monitoring, we all have the subjective experience of feeling totally integrated.
The other hemisphere could continue to perform the previous functions for both half-brains.
v.Cognitive deficits associated with cortical lesions.
long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember
Is an impairment of language, affecting the production or comprehension of speech and the ability to read or write.
Is the inability to process sensory and perceptual information.
Is a motor disorder caused by damage to the posterior parietal cortex in which the individual has difficulty with the motor planning to performs killed