The Nervous System By: Philopater Migalli Period: 1 (Cranial nerves…
The Nervous System By: Philopater Migalli Period: 1
Drugs that affect the brain
Inhibition is turned off and dopamine is allowed to squirt into the synapse.
Meth. Replaces Dopamine neurotransmitters, allowing them to bind and get trapped in the synaptic Cleft
The transporter becomes "confused" and starts to do its job in reverse.
First, it interacts with GABA receptors to make them even more inhibitory.
Second, it binds to glutamata receptors, preventing the gutamate from exciting the cell.
When the body's natural opiates activate opiate receptors, the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters is shut down.
Cocaine blocks these transporters leaving dopamine trapped in the synaptic cleft.
LSD interacts with particular receptors, but not always in the same way.
anatomy of the spinal cord
The spinal cord is located inside the vertebral canal, which is formed by the foramina of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, and 5 sacral vertebrae, which together form the spine.
Major divisions and subdivisions of the nervous system
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
There are two major divisions of the nervous system. The first is the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. The second is the peripheral nervous system, which consists of nerves that run throughout the body.
Major parts and
functions of the spinal cord
The spinal cord carries out two main functions: It connects a large part of the peripheral nervous system to the brain. Information (nerve impulses) reaching the spinal cord through sensory neurons are transmitted up into the brain.
divisions of the PNS of the
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
facial nerve (VII)
vagus nerve (X)
abducens nerve (VI)
accessory nerve (XI)
trigeminal nerve (V)
hypoglossal nerve (XII)
trochlear nerve (IV)
oculomotor nerve (III)
the optic nerve (II)
the olfactory nerve (I)
Compare & contrast the autonomic nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System controls involuntary movements
The Autonomic Nervous System is a division of the PNS
Classification of neurons
Functional Classification of Neurons – Diagrammatic View. Nerve cells are functionally classified as sensory neurons, motor neurons, or interneurons. Sensory neurons (afferent neurons) are unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar shaped cells that conduct action potentials toward or into the central nervous system.
Names of all the lobes and their functions
Recognizing faces & Patterns
Receiving Information from other organs
Diseases associated with the brain
a chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure.
Major functions of the
First, the nervous system collects sensory input from the body and external environment. Second, the nervous system then processes and interprets the sensory input. And finally, the third main function of the nervous system is to respond appropriately to the sensory input.
the layers of the meninges
A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body. In the human body there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one on each side of the vertebral column.
Major parts of the brain and
is located under the cerebrum. Its function is to coordinate muscle movements, maintain posture, and balance.
acts as a relay center connecting the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord. It performs many automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, body temperature, wake and sleep cycles, digestion, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.
is the largest part of the brain and is composed of right and left hemispheres. It performs higher functions like interpreting touch, vision and hearing, as well as speech, reasoning, emotions, learning, and fine control of movement.
the cell undergoes depolarization, a rapid increase in membrane potential. This response is all or none, meaning that once the depolarization starts, it goes on for a set amount of time, then the sodium channels slam shut, preventing the axon from depolarizing.
the change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.
After the action potential is sent down the axon, the initial segment needs to be reset to start a new impulse. This phase is called repolarization. When the membrane potential increases to a certain level, voltage-gated potassium channels open. Potassium also has a positive charge, but when the channels open, potassium rushes out of the cell. Since a positive ion is leaving, it makes the cell more negative.
Eventually the cell gets so negative, it actually overshoots the original resting potential. This is called hyperpolarization. During this phase, the membrane potential is more negative than it would normally be. This makes it harder for a neuron to reach the threshold to send a signal than normal, limiting the number of signals that can be sent back to back. This is called the refractory period, where it is more difficult for a cell to start an action potential.
Major nerves of the body
the nerve pathway involved in a reflex action including at its simplest a sensory nerve and a motor nerve with a synapse between.