Darren Butarbutar Period 2 -Nervous System (Cranial Nerves (accessory…
Darren Butarbutar Period 2 -Nervous System
Major Functions of the Nervous system
The nervous system processes and interprets sensory input and decides what should be done at each moment- a process called integration
The nervous system activates effector organs- the muscles and glands- to cause a response, called motor output
The nervous system uses its millions of sensory receptors to monitor changes occurring both inside and outside the body. The gathered information is called sensory input
Major Divisions and Subdivisions
Peripheral Nervous system
Sensory (afferent) Division
Motor (efferent) division
Somatic Nervous system
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Names of All The Lobes and Their Functions
audio processing center (hearing), tasting, and equilibrium
sensation and perception
Working memory for spatial tasks, Executive area for management, memory and vision, and solving complex problems
Visual processing center
receives information from the sensory systems, spinal cord, and other parts of the brain and then regulates motor movements and voluntary movement.
generate neural impulses that control the execution of movement
Where all Somatic sensation is received
Major Parts of the Brain and Their Function
The cerebrum or "cortex" is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections called "lobes"
The cerebellum coordinates voluntary movements such as posture, balance, coordination, speech, which results in smooth and balanced muscular activity
Layers of meninges
The layer attached to the dura mater which surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
Protect the central nervous system by containing cerebrospinal fluid, which cushions the brain and spine.
The membrane that evelops the arachnoid mater. It surrounds and supports the dural sinuses and is the hardest outermost layer
Ventricles of the brain
similar to the first and second ventricle, its filled with cerebrospinal fluid which helps protect the brain from injury and transport nutrients and waste.
the major function of this ventricle is to protect the human brain from trauma, and help form the central canal
2 Lateral ventricles
(Left) and (Right) ventricles are structures with the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning for the brain and circulate nutrients/remove waste.
function to process and transmit information
The primary components of the neuron are the soma (cell body), the axon (a long slender projection that conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body), dendrites (tree-like structures that receive messages from other neurons), and synapses (specialized junctions between neurons)
.Classification of Neurons
have three or more processes - one axon and the rest dendrites. They are the most common
have two processes, and are rare neurons
have a single short process and is more often associated with the sensory receptor
Major parts of the Spinal Cord
the main function of the lumbar spine is to bear the weight of the body.
Sacrum - the main function of the sacrum is to connect the spine to the hip bones (iliac). There are five sacral vertebrae, which are fused together.
the main function of the thoracic spine is to hold the rib cage and protect the heart and lungs.
The coccyx serves as an attachment site for tendons, ligaments, and muscles. It also functions as an insertion point of some of the muscles of the pelvic floor.
the vertebrae support the skull, move the spine, and protect the spinal cord, a bundle of nerves connected to the brain.
Action potential is a brief reversal of membrane potental with a total aplitude of about 100mV (From -70 mV to +30 mV).
caused by Na+ flowing into the cell
is caused by K+ flowing out of the cell
1) Resting state
No ions move through voltage-gated channels
4) Hyper polarization
caused by K+ continuing to leave the cell
Drugs That affect the brain
Major Nerves of The Body
or Motor neurons, send impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles all throughout the body.
The autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of heart muscle, smooth muscle like that in the stomach and the lining of other organs
Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate at the underside of the brain
Send Impulses in the opposite direction from motor neurons. They collect information about pain, pressure, temperature etc.
5 pairs of lumbar nerves
5 pairs of sacral nerves
8 pairs of cervical nerves
1 pair of coccygeal nerves
8 pairs of cervical nerves
a chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure.
Autonomic Nervous System / Reflex Arc
Autonomic nervous system function is based on the visceral reflex. This reflex is similar to the somatic reflex, but the efferent branch is composed of two neurons. The central neuron projects from the spinal cord or brain stem to synapse on the ganglionic neuron that projects to the effector.