The Nervous System (Major functions of the nervous system ( (Receiving…
The Nervous System
Major functions of the
Neurons are specialized cells of the nervous system that transmit signals throughout the body.
Motor neurons are not just limited to sending signals to muscles, they can also send signals to glands within our body and stimulate or inhibit secretion of various substances that then carry out or regulate many body functions.
Receiving sensory input: External and internal.
Integrating information: control center.
Controlling all 3 muscle types & glands: Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth and Motor output.
Maintaining Homeostasis: ...
Stablishing and maintaining mental activity
CNS: Central Nervous System
PNS: Peripheral Nervous System.
Names of all the lobes and their functions
Frontal lobes- personality, behavior,emotions, judgement, planning, problem solving, speech,body movement, intelligence,concentration, and self-awareness
Parietal lobe-Interprets language, words, sense of touch, pain, temperature, Interprets signals from vision, hearing, motor, sensory and memory
Spatial and visual perception
Occipital lobe-nterprets vision (color, light, movement)
Temporal lobe-Understanding language,Memory,Hearing,Sequencing and organization.
Classification of neurons
Sensory neurons are unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar shaped cells that conduct action potentials toward or into the central nervous system.
motor neurons (efferent neurons; lower motor neurons) are multipolar shaped cells that conduct action potentials out of the central nervous system.
Interneurons(internuncial or association neurons) are the billions of cells that form much of the central nervous system and link the sensory and motor neurons.
Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain ,in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).] 10 of the cranial nerves originate in the brainstem. Cranial nerves relay information between the brain and parts of the body, primarily to and from regions of the head and neck.
Major part of the brain and
Cerebrum: is the largest part of the brain and is composed of right and left hemispheres. It performs higher functions like interpreting touch, vision and hearing, as well as speech, reasoning, emotions, learning, and fine control of movement.
Cerebellum: is located under the cerebrum. Its function is to coordinate muscle movements, maintain posture, and balance.
Brainstem: acts as a relay center connecting the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord. It performs many automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, body temperature, wake and sleep cycles, digestion, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.
the layers of the meninges
The dura mater is the most superior of the meningeal layers. Its name means "hard mother" in Latin and it is tough and inflexible. This tissue forms several structures that separate the cranial cavity into compartments and protect the brain from displacement.
The arachnoid or arachnoid mater is the middle layer of the meninges. In some areas, it projects into the sinuses formed by the dura mater. These projections are the arachnoid granulation/arachnoid villi. They transfer cerebrospinal fluid from the ventricles back into the bloodstream.
Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear liquid produced within spaces in the brain called ventricles. Like saliva it is a filtrate of blood. It is also found inside the subarachnoid space of the meninges which surrounds both the brain and the spinal chord. In addition, a space inside the spinal chord called the central canal also contains cerebrospinal fluid.
Major divisions and subdivisions of the nervous system;
There are two major divisions of the nervous system. The first is the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. The second is the peripheral nervous system, which consists of nerves that run throughout the boy. The peripheral nervous system itself is made up of two subdivisions.
Tissues (structure & function of a neuron)
Nervous tissue, a component of nervous system, is made up of many neurons and supportive cells, called neuroglia. The main function of nervous tissue is to perceive stimuli and generate nerve impulses to various organs of the body
Drugs that affect the brain
Drugs interfere with the way neurons send, receive, and process signals via neurotransmitters. Some drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, can activate neurons because their chemical structure mimics that of a natural neurotransmitter in the body. This allows the drugs to attach onto and activate the neurons. Although these drugs mimic the brain's own chemicals, they don't activate neurons in the same way as a natural neurotransmitter, and they lead to abnormal messages being sent through the network.
Major parts and
functions of the spinal cord
conducts sensory information from the peripheral nervous system (both somatic and autonomic) to the brain
conducts motor information from the brain to our various effectors
serves as a minor reflex center
An action potential is part of the process that occurs during the firing of a neuron. During the action potential, part of the neural membrane opens to allow positively charged ions inside the cell and negatively charged ions out. ... This electrical impulse is carried down the nerve through a series of action potentials
there are two ventricles deep within the cerebral hemispheres called the lateral ventricles. They both connect with the third ventricle through a separate opening called the foramen of Monro. The third ventricle connects with the fourth ventricle through a long narrow tube called the aqueduct of Sylvius. From the fourth ventricle, CSF flows into the subarachnoid space where it bathes and cushions the brain. CSF is recycled (or absorbed) by special structures in the superior sagittal sinus called arachnoid villi.
A balance is maintained between the amount of CSF that is absorbed and the amount that is produced. A disruption or blockage in the system can cause a build up of CSF, which can cause enlargement of the ventricles (hydrocephalus) or cause a collection of fluid in the spinal cord (syringomyelia)
Anatomy of the spinal cord
The spinal cord is located inside the vertebral canal, which is formed by the foramina of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, and 5 sacral vertebrae, which together form the spine. ... 5 sacral (S) segments. 1 coccygeal (Co) segment - mainly vestigial.
The meninges refer to the membranous coverings of the brain and spinal cord. There are three layers of meninges, known as the dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater.
spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body. In the human body there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one on each side of the vertebral column.
Neurotransmitters - serotonin, dophmine,
A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex. In vertebrates, most sensory neurons do not pass directly into the brain, but synapse in the spinal cord.