Dylan Essex Block 2 Respiration (Function (ATP (one low, medium, and high…
Dylan Essex Block 2 Respiration
one low, medium, and high energy bond
breaking down of ATP releases energy from high energy bond
ADP+ phosphate = ATP through respiration
oxygen dependent transfer of energy from glucose to ATP
aerobic (requires ETC with requires oxygen)
releases energy from pyruvate to e-
relays e- to coenzyme molecules (NAD+ → NADH; FAD → FADH2)
NAD+ and FAD each carry 2 e- to the ETC.
electron transport chain
Receives 10 NADH and 2 FADH2 from the other 3 reactions
releases energy from electron to ATP
produces 2 ATP per FADH2 and 3 ATP per NADH
(this process of ATP production is called oxidative phosphorylation)
anaerobic respiration (can occur without oxygen)
evolved in anaerobic bacteria to release energy to 2 ATP
produces 2 pyruvate and 2 NADH (electron carrier molecule)
naerobic respiration (can occur without oxygen)
evolved in anaerobic bacteria to empty NADH of e- (replenishes NAD+)
produces ethanol or lactic acid and 2 NAD+
Carried out by mitochondria
2 membranes: inner and outer membrane
Outer membrane contains protein channels called porins that allow small molecules, ions, nutrients, and ATP through.
Inner membrane is more selective
water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide pass freely
other molecules use special transport proteins
The inner membrane also contains the proteins complex that comprise the mitochondrial electron transport chain
The inner membrane is folded into structures called cristae to increase the it’s SA/V ratio.
In the inner membrane space called the matrix contains the mitochondrial DNA, ribosomes, and a majority of the other mitochondrial proteins.