Chapter 5 - The Electron (Mr. Smith's Version) (Electron…
Chapter 5 - The Electron (Mr. Smith's Version)
Models of the Electron
Plum Pudding - Thomson
Electrons stuck in a sphere.
Orbital Model - Bohr
Electrons "orbit" the nucleus in specific paths like the planets orbit the Sun.
Today's Model: Electron Cloud Model
Quantum Mechanical Model
tells how likely it is to find an electron in various locations around the nucleus.
Principal Energy Levels
(1 orbital), 2
(1 orbital), 3
(3 orbitals), 3
(1 orbital), 4
(3 orbitals), 4
(5 orbitals), 4
Maximum electrons for each level
n1 = 2
n2 = 8
n3 = 18
n4 = 32
3s 3p 3d
4s 4p 4d 4f
5s 5p 5d 5f
6s 6p 6d
The Principles and Rules
Pauli's Exclusion Principle
1 or two electrons per orbital.
Electrons occupy the orbitals which give them the largest distances between them. .
Electrons occupy the lowest energy level first.
Bucket filling with water. bottom to the top
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
It is impossible to know the location and velocity of an electron at the same time.
Light is energy
Light energy given off in waves.
Light particles are called photons
Series of waves.
Low Frequency/Big Wavelength - Radio Waves
High Frequency/Small Wavelength - Gamma Rays
Visible Light (SPECTRUM)
Low Energy - R O Y G B I P - High Energy
Electron in the lowest possible energy level.
Energy Added - Excited State
Electron Jumps from High To Low State
Light emitted as electron jumps.
The Bigger the jump, the more light is emitted.
Atomic Emission Spectra
When Atoms absorb energy, electrons move into higher energy levels. They will then lose energy and emit light when they return to lower energy levels.