English 231: New Media & Digital Culture Partial Fulfillment of: Dr.…
English 231: New Media & Digital Culture
Partial Fulfillment of: Dr. A. Reid
Module 1: Introduction to New Media
Digital Divide: those who have access to computers and technology and those who don't.
New Media: mass communication using digital technology such as the internet (on-demand access, participation, interactivity, etc.)
Marshall McLuhan: studied the effects of technology with culture and claims that technology is an extension of man. "The Medium is the Message"
Tetrad: Created by Marshall McLuhan; four laws that are based around questions: What does it extend? What does it make obsolete? What is retrieved? What does the technology reverse into if it is over-extended? Also simplified into: Enhances, Obsolesces, retrieves, and reverses.
Convergence: process in which new technology is accommodated by existing media and communication also known as the synthesis of two histories of historical communication
Extension: something that extends the human body and mind
Amputation: something that is taken away from the human body as a counterpart to extension
Asia has the largest percentage of total internet users
Rearviewmirrorism: term used by Marshall McLuhan to describe experiences with any medium are conditioned by those media with which we are already familiar
Discussion Post: What is New Media? The Medium is the Message
Module 6: New Media & The Transformation of Higher Education
Discussion Post: The Digital Degree. Brief History of Liberal Education. Higher Education is Not a Mixtape.
Project: Technology Mindfulness Project
5 Technologies to Change Classroom Education: Virtual Reality, 3D printing, Cloud Technology, Biometrics, and Holograms
MOOC: Massively Open Online Courses
Completion rates are extremely low
Key Features: courses are not for academic credit, free to students, and courses are scalable to an unlimited size
devoid of local context
5 P's: Philosophical Issues, Pedagogical Issues, Practical Issues, Policy Issues, and Personal Issues
Leading Destination for International Students is the USA
Higher Education Sector: Elite, Mass and then Universal
Digital Media technology enables more flexible delivery of education
Industries is the main competition for Universities
Largest for-profit higher education provider in the US is the University of Phoenix
Online courses (this class) are taught to where at least 80% of course material is delivered online. Hybrid courses are anywhere from 30% to 79% of course material is delivered online. Web-faciliated (Moodle) courses are taught where less than 30% of course material is delivered online.
Module 4: Social Networking & Media
Discussion Post: The Social Debate. The Internet Debate. Bored and Brilliant.
Project: Film analysis of The Social Network which is about the development of Facebook. Continue Mindfulness Project.
Metcalfe's Law: A tenfold increase in the size of a network, increases its value for individuals hundredfold. Membership in a network has value to the user but is more valuable to other users.
Social Capital: bonding, bridging, and linking
Larry Rosen: Connecting Virtually Isn't Like Real-World Bonding
Keith Hampton: Relationships Are Being Enhanced, Not Replaced
Network Externalities can either be positive or negative.
Modularity: property of a project that determines the extent to which it can be broken down into smaller components
Most active Wikipedians in 2007, and the accuracy of Wikipedia is comparable to the Encyclopedia.
Social Networking Sites (SNS): online platform which people use to build social relationships with other people, often criticized for the fact that it creates public sphericles and fragments public issues.
Cognitive Surplus: Proposed by Clay Shirky and the idea that people choose to participate and engage in social media rather than engage is passive media
Module 5: Games, Technology, Industry, and Culture
Discussion Post: Video Games and Violence. Augmented Reality. Virtual Reality 101. Games, Learning, and Literacy. Why Online Games Make Players Act like Psychopaths. How Gaming Relates to your IRL Decisions.
Projects: Continue Mindfulness Project.
Features of Games: rules, variable/quantifiable outcomes, valorization of outcomes, player effort, player-attached outcome, and negotiable consequences.
Types of Games: arcade, console, PC-based, handheld, mobile, and social media
Statistics on Gamers: average gamer is 30 y/o, 47% of gamers are female, women 18+ are the fastest growing demographic, there are more adult women gamers than boys under 17, and 62% of gamers play with others (online or in person)
Gamification: applying gaming characteristics to non-gaming contexts such as adding game mechanics to education
Augmented Reality: blend of virtual and real world. PokemonGo for example.
Gaming industry's revenues exceed the movie and music industries in the US
The Sims is the most popular PC-Based Game
Decline of the Gold Age of Arcade Games was partially due to the shift toward home based games.
Major Players in the game industry: publishers, distributors, retailers, developers, and consumers
Game Publishers are the ones responsible for the costs of games
Games industry is male dominated and lacks diversity
Effects of sustained exposure to violent media: aggression, fear, and desensitization
Module 2: Twenty Concepts in New Media
3 C's of Computing: Content, Computing, Communication
World Wide Web: Credited to Tim Berners-Lee
Wikinomics: peering, openness, acting globally, and sharing
Collective Intelligence: none of us can know everything, each of us knows something, and we can put the pieces together if we pool our resources and combine our skills
Creative Commons: non-profit organization founded in 2001, which is devoted to expanding the range of creative works
Hacking: sharing and modifying computer programs to explore how they work and explore them
Power Law of Participation: moving from Collective intelligence to Collaborative Intelligence
Remediation: way of thinking about the relationship that new media has to old media
Discussion Posts: The Accidental Universe. Mastering Memory. Google-Knowing. Our Digital Form of Life. Connected, but Alone.
Project: New Media Project 1: Create your own Marvel App.
Kranzberg's First Law: Technology is neither good, nor bad, nor is it neutral
Technological Singularity: point when artificial intelligence become autonomous and events become "unpredictable or even unfathomable to human intelligence"
Module 3: Approaches to New Media
Levels of Meaning
Referential: describes things that happen in the plot
Explicit: Moral of the story
Implicit: inference into the growth and change of the characters during the film
Symptomatic: interpretation about the broader context in society
Formalist: examines narrative structure and form of the film
Realist: examines how the film represents reality
Contextualist: considers the film as part of a broader context
Spectators: spectator viewing the text
Intra-diagetic gaze: character's gaze upon another character or object
Extra-Diabetic: character addresses the viewer
Look of the camera: film director's gaze
Actor-Network theory proposes that anything that makes a difference is an "actor" and completely rejects technological determinism.
Technological Determinism: new technology sets the conditions for social change and progress, we cannot stop the progress of technology and we cannot control it. Basically the idea the technology is self-generating.
Hard/Strong View: technology develops independently from social concerns, we must meet the needs of technology, and technology is autonomous EX: Ted Kaczynski
Soft/Weak View: Technology guides evolution, we have free will over technology, new technology opens doors but we do not have to open them
Key people in this group: Neil Postman, Marshall McLuhan, Walter One, and Karl Marx.
Social Shaping of Technology: technological advancements are driven by society, alternative view to determinism
EX: Thomas Edison developed the light bulb according to what society needed not just by accident
Person within this group: Raymond Williams
Technology Lock-In: idea that the more society adopts a certain technology, the less likely they are to switch products EX: QWERTY keyword
Income levels, gender, and socioeconomic status will exists as barrier to full and equal participation in new media.
The Age of Oil occurred before The Age of Information and Telecommunications
Technopoles: center of high-tech manufacturing and information-based quaternary industry
Silicon Valley, Bangalore, and Multimedia Super Corridor
Discussion Post: Technological Determinism, Social Shaping of Technology, Tools of the Mind, Her: Needs and Desires, Notes on "The Gaze"
Projects: Film Analysis of the movie
in which a man is divorced from his wife, and then later falls in love with his computer operating system and then the operating system is shut down and the man and his neighbor (who also fell in love with an operating system) realize there is more to the world than technology. Mindfulness Project also started.