Psychological functions - Bronislaw Malinowski agrees with Durkheim that religion promotes solidarity. However, in his view, it does so by performing psychological functions for individuals , helping them cope with emotional stress that would undermine social solidarity. Malinowski identifies two types of situation in which religion performs this role: 1. where the outcome is important but is uncontrollable and thus uncertain, Lagoon fishing is safe and uses the predictable and successful method of poisoning. when the islanders fish in the lagoon, there is no ritual, Ocean fishing is dangerous and uncertain, and is always accompanied by canoe magic - rituals to ensure a safe and successful expedition. this gives people a sense of control, which eases tension, gives them confidence to undertake hazardous tasks and reinforces group solidarity. 2. At times of life crises events such as birth, puberty, marriage and especially death mark major and disruptive changes in social groups. Religion helps to minimise disruption.