Nervous System by: Loraene Lozano (Cranial nerves (Factal nerves (Fibers…
Nervous System by: Loraene Lozano
Major functions of the
Receiving input, control center, controlling the skeletal, cardiac, smooth muscle and motor output, central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
Major divisions and subdivisions of the nervous system
Central nervous system
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
somatic nervous system
Contains nerves that carries sensory signal from the body to the muscles.
autonomic nervous system
Involuntary, Regulate internal environment of the body
Major part of the brain and
Interprets touch, vision, and hearing
body posture, muscle movements, and balance
Heart rate, body temperature, breathing, sleep schedule, digestion, swallowing
Names of all the lobes and their functions
Problem solving, memory,language,judgement, impulse control, and social interaction
hearing and selective listening
Divided into 2 hemispheres so the first function is processing sensory information to location of body parts and the second is visual information and processing language and math
Able to see
layers of the meninges
strongest layer where it surrounds the brain
Forms a loose covering which never clips into the sulci at cerebral surface. The blood vessels are poorly protected.
Contains many tiny blood vessels and it is the only one that clings tightly to the brain
are structures within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid. The fluid provides cushion for the brain
Helps communicate with the fourth ventricle
to protect the human brain from trauma
Classification of neurons
converting external stimuli from the organism's environment into internal electrical impulses.
Somatic Motor (efferent)
carry impulses to the brain and the spinal cord. After a signal is sent back to the skeletal muscles, organs,
Visceral motor (efferent)
conduct impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, & glands.
Tissues (structure & function of a neuron)
A neuron is to transmit information to other nerve cells, muscle, or gland cells. The structure is dendrites, soma and axon
Major parts and
functions of the spinal cord
The functions of the spinal cord is to relay messages to different parts of the body, pass messages from sensory receptors, and to coordinated reflexes that don't go through to the body.
Cervical spine: 7 vertebrae
Thoracic spine: 12 vertebrae
Lumbar spine: 5 vertebrae
Sacrum: 5 (fused) vertebrae
Coccyx: 4 vertebrae (Tailbone)
Are brief long-distance within a neuron. A brief reversal of membrane potential with a total amplitude of about 100mV. No voltages gated channels means no AP
Drugs that affect the brain
Inhibitory transmitters shut down which is released opiate receptors. It mimics opiates and binds opiate receptors.
Ecstasy mimics serotonin and is taken up by transporters. It confuses the transporters and does things in reverse
Titus mimics anadamine ans binds to canndinoid receptors. Turns off 2 dopamine and it is allowed to squirt in synapse
Enters dopamine vesicles and forces out dopamine. It causes transporters to work in reverse.
Enters brain and delivers double of sedative. Binds to gulamate receptors preventing from exciting cells.
Blocks transporters leaving dopamine trapped in synaptic cleft
Chemically resembles serotonin and elictics its effect by binding its sutotonin receptors
Diseases associated with the brain
Progressive degenerative disease which ultimately result in dementia Memory loss, shortened attention, language loss and over time moody and confused
Results from a degeneration of dopamine releasing neurons of substania nigria. Deep brain stimulation shuts down abnormal brain activity and alleviate tremmer.
Fatal hereditary disorder. Mutant Huntington protein accumulates in brain cells and tissue dies, leading to degeneration of basal nuclei.
Major nerves of the body
Regulate activity in the heart muscle, smooth muscle, and glands. Has 2 subdivisions which sympathetic nerves that involves with the speed of the heart rate and parasympathetic which involves regulation of digestion.
Collect information on pain,temperature, and pressure.
There is 12 pairs that are associated with the brain. two are attached to the fore brain and the rest are attached tot he brain stem.
sensory nerves of smell
Pass through optic canals, coverage, and partially crosses over at optic chiasma
Extend from ventral midbrain through superior orbital fissures
Fibers from dorsal midbrain enters superior orbital fissures
extend to pons to face
Innervating lateral rectus muscle
Fibers from pons travel through internal acoustic meatuses and emerges through stylomastiod foramina
Hearing receptors and equilibrium receptor pass from inner ear through internal acoustic
Fibers from medulla leave skull via junglar foramen and run to throat
Only cranial nerves extend beyond head and neck region
From ventral rootlets from C1 to C5 region of spinal cord
Fibers from medulla exit skull via hypoglossal canal
8 pairs (C1-C8)
5 pairs (L1-L5)
12 pairs (T1-T12)
5 pairs (S1-S5)
1 pair (C0 )
anatomy of the spinal cord
Spinal cord is in the vertebral canal. Which is formed by 12 pairs of thoracic, 7 cervical, 5 lumbar and 5 sacral vertebrae.
behavior and learning
Compare & contrast the autonomic and somatic nervous system
The somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system are both part of the peripheral nervous system. The somatic nervous system is associated with the voluntary movement and autonomic is to control visceral functions.
the sensory neuron sends a signal to the inner neuron and activates it, motor neurons run out of the spinal cord and connect with a muscle.