ENG 231 New Media & Digital Culture (Module 3: Approaches to New Media…
ENG 231 New Media & Digital Culture
Module 1: Introduction to New Media
Key philosopher: Marshall McLuhan
famous declaration: "the medium is the message"
What is New Media?
New media is content that is available through electronic communication; computers, telephones, and websites/blogs Emerged in the mid 20th century.
Principles of Wikinomics
Tim Berners-Lee is credited with developing the World Wide Web.
The "synthesis of the two histories" of historical communication technologies and new media is called convergence.
Module 2: Twenty Concepts in Digital Media
digital divide: inequity in access to computers and internet, but it also refers to the ability to use these technologies to participate in public life.
Hacking: sharing and modifying of computer programs to explore how they work and exploring them. (Usually illegal)
Remediation: Marshall McLuhan used this term to describe how a way of thinking about the relationship that new media has to old media or media we are familiar with.
Creative Commons: on-profit organization founded in 2001, "that is devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to legally build upon and share."
Collective Intelligence: "none of us can know everything; each of us know something, and we can put the pieces together if we combine resources.
"Google Knowing": The internet is the fountain of knowledge and google is the mouth from which it flows. - Michael Patrick-Lynch
Mastering Memory: "Technology is ruining our memory. We do not remember the content of stored information so much as where information is stored and how to find it” - Abby Smith Rumsey
Module 3: Approaches to New Media
Technological Determinism: The idea that new technologies are "self-generating" and are invented in an independent sphere that then create new societies. We can't stop progress and are unable to control technology.
Social Shaping of Technology: argues that technological innovation is a social product.
McLuhan and Williams Opposing Views:
McLuhan describes technology as an "extension of man". Williams believes decisions are made to innovate and ultimately adopt new technologies and can't be independent in of society.
Income levels, gender, and socioeconomic status still exist as barriers to full and equal participation in new media.
Technopoles: Areas such as Silicon Valley in California, Bangalore in India, and Multimedia Super Corridor in Malaysia.
Actor-network theory proposes that anything that makes a difference is an "actor" and completely rejects technological determinism. - Bruno Latour
Kranzberg's First Law: "technology is neither good, nor bad, nor is it neutral."
Film Theory: Four levels of Meaning:
Referential: Describes things that happen in plot.
Explicit: Moral of the story.
Implicit: Less obvious.
Symptomatic: Relates film to prevalent things in the culture.
The Gaze: ways in which viewers look at images of people” (Chandler).
, was a great film to support the theory "technology being an extension of man" this film showed that technology is changing constantly and that it can stand independent in society.
Module 4: Social Networking and New Media
Social Networking: complex, communication network, in which we can participate as consumers, producers, or both.
Metcalfe's Law: n x (n-1) = n2 - n
Meaning: as networks grow, their significance to individuals grows exponentially.
What makes a Network?
strength of weak ties
hubs and connectors
power laws of distribution
Three types of Social Capital:
Bonding: strong bonds b/t family & community members.
Bridging: weaker bonds. acquaintances.
Linking: connection to those at differing levels of power.
Modularity: A property of a project that determines the extent to which it can be broken down into smaller components.
One criticism of social networking is that it creates "public sphericles" and fragments public issues.
Clay Shirky proposed the idea of "cognitive surplus which means People choose to participate and engage in social media rather than engage in passive media.
2007 had the most active wikipedians. A study was done that found Wikipedia to be broadly comparable to the Encyclopedia Brittanica in accuracy.
The social Debate: " small sips that come from steady contact with social media can add up to big gulps of information about the people we connect with." - Hampton
"We need to examine our technology use to ensure that it isn't getting in the way of our being sociable and getting the emotional support we need from the people who are closest to us." - Rosen
The Social Network Film:
Was a great film to support the Social Shaping of Technology theory. Zuckerberg created (shaped) a whole new technology to advance the way his classmates communicated.
Module 5: Games Technology, Industry, Culture
Features of Games
Player attached outcome
Valorisation of outcome
Games on social media
PC based games
Major Players in game industry
Publishers- responsible for financing development cost of games
Employment in the game industry lacks diversity and is Male dominant.
Gamification: The use of game mechanics in non-game contexts such as education.
Game industry revenue has exceed the movie and music industries in the U.S.
Most popular PC game is SIMS
47% of players are women
62% of gamers play games with others - either in person or online.
Adult women represent a larger portion of gamers than boys aged 17 or younger.
Effect of sustained exposure to violent media:
Module 6: New Media and the Transformation of Higher Education
The 5 P's:
what motivates different types of students to undertake higher education.
policy issues: how does the gov. respond to new developments.
pedagogical issues: What aspect of teaching can be enhanced through new digital media.
how do these changes effect student learning.
practical issues: how can digital media devices better facilitate the delivery and enhancement of education. (what can it add)
MOOC: Massively Open Online Courses
The three phases of growth in the higher education sector:
Elite- shaping the mind and character of a ruling class.
Mass- transmission of skills and preparation for a broader range of technical and economic elite roles
Universal-adaptation of the “whole population” to rapid technological change.
Digital media technologies enable more flexible delivery of education.
Industry is the main competitor for universities.
MOOC Key Features:
courses are scalable to an unlimited size
free to students
courses are not for academic credit
Criticisms of MOOC:
completion rates for MOOCs are extremely low.
devoid of local context.
The US is the leading country for international studies.
University of Phoenix is the largest for-profit higher education provider in the US.