New Media & Digital Culture (Module #5: Games, Technology, Industry,…
New Media & Digital Culture
Module #6: New Media and the Transformation of Higher Education
Online education has not been proven to be as effective as University.
Issues in universities that need to be addressed
-enhancing teaching and learning quality
-accommodating digital natives
-increasing student flexibility
-developing 21st century skills
-improving the cost of higher education
The five P's
-policy issues: how are governments responding to these new developments.
-practical issues: how can digital media technologies better facilitate the delivery of education.
-personal issues: what motivates different cohorts of students to undertake higher education.
-pedagogical issues: what aspects of teaching and learning can be enhanced through new media.
-philosophical issues- what changes mean for the experience of student learning.
University of Phoenix is the largest for-profit higher education provider in the US.
One criticism of MOOCs is that they are devoid of local context. Another is that the completion rates are extremely low.
Key feature of a MOOC include
-it being free to students
-the courses are scalable to an unlimited size
-courses are not for academic credit.
Industry is the main competitor of universities
Module #1: Introduction
New Media is a possibility of on-demand access to content anytime, interactive user feedback, creative participation, and community function.
All media builds on each other which supports the idea that there is no media without old media.
Convergence is where multiple technologies come together to form one. For example a smartphone does more than just make phone calls, its also used for social media, internet, and taking pictures.
The Tetrad is an approach for looking at the effects of new media. It is four questions which are What does it extend, what does it make obsolete, what is retrieved, and what does the technology reverse into if its over-extended. (McLuhan)
Medium effects the message that is trying to be delivered.
Module #3: Approaches to New Media
Social Shaping of Technology means that technological advancements are socially-driven
Information Society Theories: creation, distribution, use, integration and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity.
Actor-Network Theory: objects are all part of a social network and relationships are between things and between concepts
Determinism opposes the social shaping of technology approach. Those who are Determinists believe that technology developments occur independently of society and cant be controlled or stopped.
Social shaping of Technology approach is a view that technology is a byproduct of society and cant be independent of society.
Module #4: Social Networking & New Media
Social network is a complex communication network in which we can participate as a consumer or producer
Small worlds, strength of weak ties, hubs and connectors, and power laws of distribution makes a network.
Three types of social capital:
-Bonding- strong bonds between family and community members.
-Bridging- weaker bond/ acquaintances.
-Linking- connection to those at differing levels of power.
Theres a big debate on whether networks socialize of desocialize people.
A public sphere is a network for communicating information and points of view.
Modularity is a property of a project that determines the extent to which it can be broken down into smaller components
Metcalfe's law states that membership in a network has a value to the user but is more valuable to other users.
-[nx(n-1)=n2-n] is the equation
Module #2: Twenty Concepts in New Media
The three C's of computing are content, communication, and computing.
Tim Berners-lee is credited with the development of the World Wide Wed.
Collective intelligence is the idea that no one can know everything, everyone knows something, and we can put all of that knowledge together by combining our resources and skills.
Kranzberg's first law says that technology is neither good or bad because it cant be ascribed good or bad qualities.
Lightman states that we are not present and we have a de-emphasized the directly experienced world.
Kurzweil proposed the "law of accelerating return" which says the rate of technology change increases exponentially.
Moore's law: the number of transistors in a circuit doubles every two years
Module #5: Games, Technology, Industry, Culture
The video game industry grossed 99.6 billion dollars and exceeded the movie and music industries in the US.
Gamification is the use of game mechanics in non-game contexts. A good example is education.
Adult women represent a larger portion of gamers than boys 17 or younger.
47% of all players are women
There are six features of games.
-variable, quantifiable outcomes
-valorisation of outcomes
The average gamer is 30 years old.
Some people believe that video games lead to violence and psychpaths
-a psychopath is someone without a conscience, little empathy and a cognitive style that places little or no value on fair treatment of others
Augmented reality blends virtual and real worlds
Employment in the games industry is male dominated and lacks diversity
There are 5 major players in the gaming industry
-game developers: do the content creation activities
-game publishers: finance the development costs of games
-game distributors/retailers: stores and companies that sell games
-game consumers: people who buy and play the games that are produced