Central Nerve System (Mouse Party Drugs (ecstacy (3,4-Methylenedioxymeth…
Central Nerve System
Mouse Party Drugs
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, commonly known as ecstasy, is a psychoactive drug primarily used as a recreational drug. The desired effects include altered sensations and increased energy, empathy, and pleasure. When taken by mouth, effects begin after 30–45 minutes and last 3–6 hours.
An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. Drinking alcohol plays an important social role in many cultures. Most countries have laws regulating the production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages
Heroin is an opioid drug made from morphine, a natural substance taken from the seed pod of the various opium poppy plants grown in Southeast and Southwest Asia, Mexico, and Colombia. Heroin can be a white or brown powder, or a black sticky substance known as black tar heroin. Other common names for heroin include big H, horse, hell dust, and smack.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug. It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein. Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation.
Methamphetamine is a white crystalline drug that people take by snorting it (inhaling through the nose), smoking it or injecting it with a needle. Some even take it orally, but all develop a strong desire to continue using it because the drug creates a false sense of happiness and well-being—a rush (strong feeling) of confidence, hyperactiveness and energy. One also experiences decreased appetite. These drug effects generally last from six to eight hours, but can last up to twenty-four hours.
Lysergic acid diethylamide, also known as acid, is a hallucinogenic drug. Effects typically include altered thoughts, feelings, and awareness of one's surroundings. Many users see or hear things that do not exist. Dilated pupils, increased blood pressure, and increased body temperature are typical.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant used for medical or recreational purposes. The main psychoactive part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol, one of 483 known compounds in the plant, including at least 65 other cannabinoids.
Lobes of the Brain
Temporal Lobe- associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech
Occipital Lobe- associated with visual processing
Parietal Lobe- associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli.
Frontal Lobe- associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving.
Major Parts of the Brain
Cerebellum: is located under the cerebrum.
Brainstem: acts as a relay center connecting the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord.
Cerebrum: is the largest part of the brain and is composed of right and left hemispheres.
Limbic System: The limbic system, often referred to as the "emotional brain", is found buried within the cerebrum. Like the cerebellum, evolutionarily the structure is rather old.
This system contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. Here is a visual representation of this system, from a midsagittal view of the human brain:
The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. Within each ventricle is a region of choroid plexus, a network of ependymal cells involved in the production of CSF.
The main function of this ventricle is to protect the human brain from trauma (via a cushioning effect) and to help form the central canal, which runs the length of the spinal cord. This ventricle has a roof and a floor.
As with the other ventricles of the brain, it is filled with cerebrospinal fluid, which helps to protect the brain from injury and transport nutrients and waste. The third ventricle is a narrow cavity that is located between the two halves of the brain.
The right and left lateral ventricles are structures within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid, a clear, watery fluid that provides cushioning for the brain while also helping to circulate nutrients and remove waste.
Nervous tissue makes up three major parts of our nervous system: nerves, the spinal cord and the brain. Our nervous system consists of two main parts: the peripheral and central nervous systems. The peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves that extend to all reaches of the body- the periphery. The central nervous system is made up of the spinal cord and brain and is the central processing center for all stimuli.
Peripheral nervous tissue consists of nerves made up of nerve cells called neurons. Nerves extend all over the body, from the tips of the fingers to internal organs. They form a long line of connectivity, like a chain of paper clips linked together. Nerves connect to the spinal cord, which in turn, connects to the brain. So when you feel a stimulus in your toe, for example, the sensory impulse must travel from the nerves, all the way to the brain and back in order for you to process that feeling.
The spinal cord and brain are also made up of nerves. These nerves are housed in a soft material known as matter. Within the spinal cord, we find gray and white matter holding nerves in place, as well as spinal fluid. And, of course, the brain is also made up of gray matter as well as white matter, with nerves embedded within.
In a state of sleep, the brain stops maintaining consciousness, reduces some of its sensitivity to sensory input, relaxes skeletal muscles, and completes many administrative functions. These administrative functions include the consolidation and storage of memory, dreaming, and development of nervous tissue.
Functional Classification of Neurons – Diagrammatic View
Nerve cells are functionally classified as sensory neurons, motor neurons, or interneurons.
image descriptionSensory neurons (afferent neurons) are unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar shaped cells that conduct action potentials toward or into the central nervous system.
They carry somatic nervous system signals from the skin, joints, skeletal muscles, sensory organs (eyes, ears, mouth, and nose). They also carry autonomic nerous system signals from the visceral organs (heart, lungs, vessels, etc).
In comparison, image descriptionmotor neurons (efferent neurons; lower motor neurons) are multipolar shaped cells that conduct action potentials out of the central nervous system.
To collect sensory input from the body and external environment.
To process and interpret the sensory input.
To respond appropriately to the sensory input.
Major Parts of the Spinal Cord
The spinal cord carries out two main functions: It connects a large part of the peripheral nervous system to the brain. Information (nerve impulses) reaching the spinal cord through sensory neurons are transmitted up into the brain.
Its three major roles are to relay messages from the brain to different parts of the body, to perform an action, to pass along messages from sensory receptors to the brain, and to coordinate reflexes that are managed by the spinal cord alone.
Action potentials are caused when different ions cross the neuron membrane. A stimulus first causes sodium channels to open. Because there are many more sodium ions on the outside, and the inside of the neuron is negative relative to the outside, sodium ions rush into the neuron.
When an action potential happens, the sodium (Na+) ion channels (here shown in green) on the axon open and the Na+ rushes in. Since the Na+ (red) is positively charged, it makes the inside of the axon a little more positively charged. The sodium keeps rushing in until the inside is positive relative to the outside.