New Media & Digital Culture (Module 2: Twenty Concepts in Digital…
New Media & Digital Culture
Module 1: Intro To Digital Media
extension: “occurs when an individual or society makes or uses something in a way that extends the range of the human body and mind in a fashion that is new.”(Kappelman, par. 12)
Tetrad: four-pronged approach to considering the effects of media
McLuhan: means of how a message is delivered can dramatized or downplay the message itself (Medium is the Message)
new media: massive exodus towards digital interconnectivity that emerged in the mid 20th century and has grown exponentially today (Socha & Eber-Schmid)
Module 2: Twenty Concepts in Digital Media
3 C's of Computing:
Computing: digital media and information technologies
Communication: networks, artefacts and practices
Content: media and information
digital divide: inequity in access to computers and internet; ability to use these technologies to participate in public life
collective intelligence: "none of us can know everything; each of us knows something; and we can put the pieces together if we pool our resources and combine our skills"
Creative Commons: non-profit organization founded in 2001 "that is devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to legally build upon and share"
rearviewmirrorism: "experiences with any medium are conditioned by those media with which we are already familiar"
Michael Patrick-Lynch: "google knowing", aka online acquired knowledge “the internet is the fountain of knowledge and Google is the mouth from which it flows.” (Google-Knowing, 23)
Developer of World Wide Web: Tim Berners-Lee
Web 2.0: identifies developments in internet software and platforms that enabled Web applications to move from being static and based around a push of content
Module 3: Approaches To New Media
Kranzberg's First Law: "technology is neither good, nor bad, nor is it neutral
Information Technologies Theorist Daniel Bell: "argued that the rise of the services economy and the growing use of computer-driven knowledge technologies were central to what he described as the 'post-industrial society'"
Technopoles: Silicone Valley (California), Bangalore (India), and Multimedia Super Corridor (Malaysia)
social shaping of technology: argues that technological innovation is a social product
Network Society Theorist Manuel Castells: "proposed that the rise of the network society is linked to the economic shift from an industrial to an information mode of development"
by Spike Jonze attempts to discover what it means to be human in a world that continues to stray from its traditional guidelines
information Technologies Theorist Daniel Bell: "argued that the rise of the services economy and the growing use of computer-driven knowledge technologies were central to what he described as the 'post-industrial society'"
technological determinism: the idea that new technologies are "self-generating" and are invented in an independent sphere that then create new societies
McLuhan vs Williams:
-McLuhan questioned extent to which we can seek to understand culture independently of the technological forms through which it is always already mediated while Williams analysis draws attention to the socio-economic and institutional contexts through which media technologies are developed and used
-MchLuhan: media technologies as "extensions of man"
Module 4: Social Networking and Media
Clay Shirky's "cognitive surplus": people choose to participate and engage in social media rather than engage in passive media
The Social Network* shows a man falling deeper into a technological world and further from true human connectivity
Social networking: complex communications network in which we can participate as consumers producers or both
Metcalfe's Law: equation [n x (n - 1) = n2 - n] means that membership in a network has a value to the user but is more valuable to other users
Public Sphericles: "Habermas argues that the public sphere... is constituted as a network for communicating information and points of view."
Modularity: a property of a project that determines the extent to which it can be broken down into smaller components
Three types of social capital:
-bonding: strong bonds between family and community members
-bridging: weaker bonds between acquaintances
-linking: connection to those at differing levels of power
Module 5: Games Technology, Industry, Culture
gamification: the use of game mechanics in non-game contexts such as education
-average gamer is 30 years old
-47% of gamers are female
-women 18+ is the fastest growing demographic
-62% of gamers play with others online or in person
Employment in the games industry is male dominated and lacks diversity
Features of Games:
-rules: games are rule-based
-player effort: games are challenging to the player
-variable: quantifiable outcomes
-valorisation of outcomes: different potential outcomes of the game are assigned different values, some positive and negative
-player-attached outcome: player is emotionally attached to outcome
-negotiable consequences: same game can be played with or without real-life consequences
Module 6: New Media and the Transformation of Higher Education
-practical issues: how can digital media technologies better facilitate the delivery of education
-policy issues: how are governments responding to these new developments
Criticisms of MOOCs:
-completion rates are extremely low
-"devoid of local context"
-philosophical issues: what these changes mean for the experience of student learning
-pedagogical issues: what aspects of teaching and learning can be enhancing through new media and which may not
Growth in the Higher Education Sector:
Elite: shaping the mind and character of a ruling class
Mass: transmission of skills and preparation for a broader range of technical and economic elite roles
Universal: adaptation of the whole population to rapid social and technological change
Industry is the main competitor of universities